• 1
    World Health Organization 1994 Assessment of fracture risk and application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis, WHO Technical Report Series 843, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 2
    Kanis JA, Melton LJ III, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N 1994 Perspective: The diagnosis of osteoporosis J Bone Miner Res 9:11371141.
  • 3
    Melton LJ III, Chrischilles EA, Cooper C, Lane AW, Riggs BL 1992 Perspective: How many women have osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 7:10051010.
  • 4
    Melton LJ III 1996 History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project Mayo Clin Proc 71:266274.
  • 5
    Beard CM, Melton LJ III, Cedel SL, Richelson LS, Riggs BL 1990 Ascertainment of risk factors for osteoporosis: Comparison of interview data with medical record review J Bone Miner Res 5:691699.
  • 6
    Katzman DK, Bachrach LK, Carter DR, Marcus R 1991 Clinical and anthropometric correlates of bone mineral acquisition in healthy adolescent girls J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:13321339.
  • 7
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H 1996 Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures BMJ 312:12541259.
  • 8
    Ross PD, Yhee Y-K, Davis JW, Wasnich RD 1993 Bone density predicts fracture incidence among elderly men. In: Christiansen C, Riis B (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Osteoporosis and Consensus Development Conference, Hong Kong, 27 March–2 April 1993, Handelstrykkeriet Aalborg ApS, Aalborg, Denmark.
  • 9
    Stegman MR, Heaney RP, Recker RR 1995 Comparison of speed of sound ultrasound with single photon absorptiometry for determining fracture odds ratios J Bone Miner Res 10:346352.
  • 10
    Gärdsell P, Johnell O, Nilsson BE 1990 The predictive value of forearm bone mineral content measurements in men Bone 11:229232.
  • 11
    Cheng S, Suominen H, Era P, Heikkinen E 1994 Bone density of the calcaneus and fractures in 75- and 80-year-old men and women Osteoporos Int 4:4854.
  • 12
    Nguyen T, Sambrook P, Kelly P, Jones G, Lord S, Freund J, Eisman J 1993 Prediction of osteoporotic fractures by postural instability and bone density BMJ 307:11111115.
  • 13
    Nguyen TV, Eisman JA, Kelly PJ, Sambrook PN 1996 Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in elderly men Am J Epidemiol 144:255263.
  • 14
    De Laet CEDH, Van Hout BA, Burger H, Hofman A, Pols HAP 1997 Bone density and risk of hip fracture in men and women: Cross sectional analysis BMJ 315:221225.
  • 15
    Anonymous 1997 Who are candidates for prevention and treatment for osteoporosis? Osteoporos Int 7:16.
  • 16
    Melton LJ III, Chao EYS, Lane J 1988 Biomechanical aspects of fractures. In: RiggsBL, MeltonLJIII (eds.) Osteoporosis: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Raven Press, New York, pp. 111131.
  • 17
    Carter DR, Bouxsein ML, Marcus R 1992 New approaches for interpreting projected bone densitometry data J Bone Miner Res 7:137145.
  • 18
    Cheng S, Suominen H, Sakari-Rantala R, Laukkanen P, Avikainen V, Heikkinen E 1997 Calcaneal bone mineral density predicts fracture occurrence: A five-year follow-up study in elderly people J Bone Miner Res 12:10751082.
  • 19
    Mazess RB, Barden H, Mautalen C, Vega E 1994 Normalization of spine densitometry J Bone Miner Res 9:541548.
  • 20
    Cummings SR, Marcus R, Palermo L, Ensrud KE, Genant HK, the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group 1994 Does estimating volumetric bone density of the femoral neck improve the prediction of hip fracture? A prospective study J Bone Miner Res 9:14291432.
  • 21
    Faulkner KG, Roberts LA, McClung MR 1996 Discrepancies in normative data between Lunar and Hologic DXA systems Osteoporos Int 6:432436.
  • 22
    Ahmed AIH, Blake GM, Rymer JM, Fogelman I 1997 Screening for osteopenia and osteoporosis: Do the accepted normal ranges lead to overdiagnosis? Osteoporos Int 7:432438.
  • 23
    Melton LJ III 1997 The prevalence of osteoporosis J Bone Miner Res 12:17691771.
  • 24
    Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL 1995 Proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults Osteoporos Int 5:389409.
  • 25
    Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP 1997 Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III J Bone Miner Res 12:17611768.
  • 26
    Beard CM, Lane AW, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL, Melton LJ III 1994 Comparison of respondents and nonrespondents in an osteoporosis study Ann Epidemiol 4:398403.
  • 27
    Ray NF, Chan JK, Thamer M, Melton LJ III 1997 Medical expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures in the United States in 1995: Report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation J Bone Miner Res 12:2435.
  • 28
    Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ III 1992 Incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures: A population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1985–89 J Bone Miner Res 7:221227.
  • 29
    Orwoll ES, Oviatt SK, Mann T 1990 The impact of osteophytic and vascular calcifications on vertebral mineral density measurements in men J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:12021207.
  • 30
    Reid IR, Evans MC, Ames R, Wattie DJ 1991 The influence of osteophytes and aortic calcification on spinal mineral density in postmenopausal women J Clin Endocrinol Metab 72:13721374.
  • 31
    Masud T, Langley S, Wiltshire P, Doyle DV, Spector TD 1993 Effect of spinal osteophytosis on bone mineral density measurements in vertebral osteoporosis BMJ 307:172173.
  • 32
    Jones G, Nguyen T, Sambrook PN, Kelly PJ, Eisman JA 1995 A longitudinal study of the effect of spinal degenerative disease on bone density in the elderly J Rheumatol 22:932936.
  • 33
    von der Recke P, Hansen MA, Overgaard K, Christiansen C 1996 The impact of degenerative conditions in the spine on bone mineral density and fracture risk prediction Osteoporos Int 6:4349.
  • 34
    Faulkner RA, McCulloch RG, Fyke SL, De Coteau WE, McKay HA, Bailey DA, Houston CS, Wilkinson AA 1995 Comparison of areal and estimated volumetric bone mineral density values between older men and women Osteoporos Int 5:271275.
  • 35
    Marcus R, Greendale G, Blunt BA, Bush TL, Sherman S, Sherwin R, Wahner H, Wells B 1994 Correlates of bone mineral density in the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Trial J Bone Miner Res 9:14671476.
  • 36
    Cundy T, Cornish J, Evans MC, Gamble G, Stapleton J, Reid IR 1995 Sources of interracial variation in bone mineral density J Bone Miner Res 10:368373.
  • 37
    Bhudhikanok GS, Wang M-C, Eckert K, Matkin C, Marcus R, Bachrach LK 1996 Differences in bone mineral in young Asian and Caucasian Americans may reflect differences in bone size J Bone Miner Res 11:15451556.