• 1
    Pollitzer WS, Anderson JB 1989 Ethnic and genetic differences in bone mass: A review with a hereditary vs. environmental perspective Am J Clin Nutr 50:12441259.
  • 2
    Armamento-Villareal R, Villareal DT, Avioli LV, Civitelli R 1992 Estrogen status and heredity are major determinants of premenopausal bone mass J Clin Invest 90:24642471.
  • 3
    Smith DM, Nance WE, Kang KW, Christian JC, Johnston CC 1973 Genetic factors in determining bone mass J Clin Invest 52:28002808.
  • 4
    Popcock NA, Eisman JA, Hopper JL, Yeates MG, Sambrook PN, Ebert S 1987 Genetic determinants of bone mass in adults J Clin Invest 80:706710.
  • 5
    Lutz J, Tesar R 1990 Mother-daughter pairs: Spinal and femoral bone densities and dietary intakes Am J Clin Nutr 52:872877.
  • 6
    Tylavsky FA, Bortz AD, Hancock RL, Anderson JB 1989 Familial resemblance of radial bone mass between premenopausal mothers and their college-age daughters Calcif Tissue Int 45:265272.
  • 7
    Seeman E, Hopper JL, Bach LA, Cooper ME, Parkinson E, McKay J, Jerums G 1989 Reduced bone mass in daughters of women with osteoporosis N Engl J Med 320:554558.
  • 8
    Peacock M, Johnston CC, Christian J 1992 Inheritance of calcium-regulating hormones, calcium absorption and bone turnover J Bone Miner Res 7 (Suppl):937.
  • 9
    Tokita A, Kelly PJ, Nguyen TV, Qi J-C, Morrison NA, Risteli L, Risteli J, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA 1994 Genetic influences on type I collagen synthesis and degradation: Further evidence for genetic regulation of bone turnover J Clin Endocrinol Metab 78:14611466.
  • 10
    Hansen MA, Hassager C, Jensen SB, Christiansen C 1992 Is heritability a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 7:10371043.
  • 11
    Eisman JA 1995 Vitamin D receptor gene alleles and osteoporosis: An affirmative view J Bone Miner Res 10:12891293.
  • 12
    Gong G, Johnson ML, Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Kimmel DB, Recker RR 1995 Association of PTH gene polymorphism with metacarpal diameter and rate of change in upper radius in women J Bone Miner Res 10 (Suppl 1):S462.
  • 13
    Grant SF, Reid DM, Blake G, Herd R, Fogelman I, Ralston SH 1996 Reduced bone density and osteoporosis associated with a polymorphic Sp1 binding site in the collagen type 1 α 1 gene Nature Genet 14:203205.
  • 14
    Matkovic V, Jelic T, Wardlaw GM, Ilich JZ, Goel PK, Wright JK, Andon MB, Smith KT, Heaney RP 1994 Timing of peak bone mass in Caucasian females and its implications for the prevention of osteoporosis J Clin Invest 93:799808.
  • 15
    Matkovic V, Fontana D, Tominac D, Goel P, Chestnut CH 1990 Factors that influence peak bone mass formation: A study of calcium balance and the inheritance of bone mass in adolescent females Am J Clin Nutr 52:878888.
  • 16
    O'Brien KO, Abrams SA, Liang LK, Ellis KJ, Gagel RF 1996 Increased efficiency of calcium absorption during short periods of inadequate calcium intake in girls Am J Clin Nutr 63:579583.
  • 17
    Ellis K, Abrams SA, Wong W 1997 Body composition of a young, multiethnic female population Am J Clin Nutr 65:724731.
  • 18
    FavusMJ, (ed.), 1993 primer on the metabolic bone disease and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 2nd Ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A., pp. 426427.
  • 19
    Yergey AL, Vieira NE, Hansen JW 1980 Isotope ratio measurements of urinary calcium with a thermal ionization probe in a quadrupole mass spectrometer Anal Chem 52:18111814.
  • 20
    O'Brien KO, Abrams SA 1994 Effects of development on techniques for calcium stable isotope studies in children Biol Mass Spectrometry 23:357361.
  • 21
    Neer R, Berman M, Fisher L, Rosenberg R 1967 Multicompartmental analysis of calcium kinetics in normal adult males J Clin Invest 46:13641379.
  • 22
    Abrams SA, Esteban NV, Vieira NE, Sidbury JB, Specker BL, Yergey AL 1992 Developmental changes in calcium kinetics in children assessed using stable isotopes J Bone Miner Res 7:287293.
  • 23
    Yergey AL, Abrams SA, Vieira NE, Eastell R, Hillman LS, Covell DG 1990 Recent studies of human calcium metabolism using stable isotopic tracers Can J Physiol Pharmacol 68:973976.
  • 24
    Abrams SA, Yergey AL, Heaney RP 1994 Relationship between balance and dual tracer isotopic measurements of calcium absorption and excretion J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:965969.
  • 25
    Abrams SA 1993 Pubertal changes in calcium kinetics in girls assessed using 42Ca Pediatr Res 34:455459.
  • 26
    Carroll MD, Abraham S, Dresser CM 1983 (National Center for Health Statistics). Dietary intake source data: United States, 1976–80. National Health Survey, Series 11 (231). DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 83–1681. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, U.S.A.
  • 27
    Avioli LV, McDonald JE, Lee SW 1965 The influence of age on the intestinal absorption of 47Ca in women and its relation to 47Ca absorption in postmenopausal osteoporosis J Clin Invest 44:19601965.
  • 28
    Wastney ME, Ng J, Smith D, Martin BR, Peacock M, Weaver CM 1996 Differences in calcium kinetics between adolescent girls and young women Am J Physiol 271:R208R216.
  • 29
    Dawson-Hughes B, Stern DT, Shipp CC, Rasmussen HM 1988 Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:6268.
  • 30
    Abrams SA, O'Brien KO, Liang LK, Stuff JE 1995 Differences in calcium absorption and kinetics between black and white girls aged 5–16 years J Bone Miner Res 10:829833.
  • 31
    Pratt JH, Manatunga AK, Peacock M 1996 A comparison of the urinary excretion of bone resorptive products in white and black children J Lab Clin Med 127:6770.
  • 32
    Heaney RP, Weaver CM, Fitzsimmons ML 1990 Influence of calcium load on absorption fraction J Bone Miner Res 5:11351138.
  • 33
    Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE, Falconer G, Green CL 1995 Rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of two dosages of vitamin D Am J Clin Nutr 61:11401145.
  • 34
    Spencer H, Jacob M, Lewin I, Samachson J 1964 Absorption of calcium in osteoporosis Am J Med 37:223234.
  • 35
    Nordin BEC, Horsman A, Marshall DH 1979 Calcium requirement and calcium therapy Clin Orthop 140:216239.