• 1
    Hagino H, Yamamoto K, Teshima R, Kishimoto H, Kuranobu K, Nakamura T 1989 The incidence of fractures of the proximal femur and the distal radius in Tottori prefecture, Japan Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 109:4344.
  • 2
    Ross PD, Norimatsu H, Davis JW, Yano K, Wasnich RD, Fujiwara S, Hosoda Y, Melton LJ III 1991 A comparison of hip fracture incidence among native Japanese, Japanese Americans, and American Caucasians Am J Epidemiol 133:801809.
  • 3
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner W, Cauley J, Ensrud K, Genant HK, Palermo L, Scott J, Vogt TM 1993 Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures Lancet 341:7275.
  • 4
    Yano K, Wasnich RD, Vogel JM, Heilbrun LK 1984 Bone mineral measurements among middle-aged and elderly Japanese residents in Hawaii Am J Epidemiol 119:751764.
  • 5
    Norimatsu H, Mori S, Uesato T, Yoshikawa T, Katsuyama N 1989 Bone mineral density of the spine and proximal femur in normal and osteoporotic subjects in Japan Bone Miner 5:213222.
  • 6
    Davis JW, Novotny R, Ross PD, Wasnich RD 1994 The peak bone mass of Hawaiian, Filipino, Japanese, and white women living in Hawaii Calcif Tissue Int 55:249252.
  • 7
    Ross PD, He Y, Yates AJ, Coupland C, Ravn P, McClung M, Thompson D, Wasnich RD 1996 Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women Calcif Tissue Int 59:339343.
  • 8
    Davis JW, Ross PD, Nevitt MC, Wasnich RD 1997 Incidence rates of falls among Japanese men and women living in Hawaii J Clin Epidemiol 50:589594.
  • 9
    Heilbrun LK, Ross PD, Wasnich RD, Yano K, Vogel JM 1991 Characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents in a prospective study of osteoporosis J Clin Epidemiol 44:233239.
  • 10
    Worth RM, Kagan A 1970 Ascertainment of men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii through World War II Selective Service registration J Chronic Dis 23:389397.
  • 11
    Luukinen H, Koski K, Hiltunen L, Kivela SL 1994 Incidence rate of falls in an aged population in northern Finland J Clin Epidemiol 47:843850.
  • 12
    Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Kidd S 1988 Forgetting falls. The limited accuracy of recall of falls in the elderly J Am Geriatr Soc 36:613616.
  • 13
    Blake AJ, Morgan K, Bendall MJ, Dallosso H, Ebrahim SB, Arie TH, Fentem PH, Bassey EJ 1988 Falls by elderly people at home: Prevalence and associated factors Age Ageing 17:365372.
  • 14
    Wickham C, Cooper C, Margetts BM, Barker DJ 1989 Muscle strength, activity, housing and the risk of falls in elderly people Age Ageing 18:4751.
  • 15
    Prudham D, Evans JG 1981 Factors associated with falls in the elderly: A community study Age Ageing 10:141146.
  • 16
    Winner SJ, Morgan CA, Evans JG 1989 Perimenopausal risk of falling and incidence of distal forearm fracture BMJ 298:14861488.
  • 17
    O'Loughlin JL, Robitaille Y, Boivin JF, Suissa S 1993 Incidence of and risk factors for falls and injurious falls among the community-dwelling elderly Am J Epidemiol 137:342354.
  • 18
    Ross PD, Huang C 1997 Hip fracture incidence for both Caucasians and Japanese in Hawaii is lower than North America J Bone Miner Res 12 (Suppl 1):S173.
  • 19
    Fujita T 1994 Osteoporosis in Japan: Factors contributing to the low incidence of hip fracture Adv Nutr Res 9:8999.
  • 20
    Yasumura S, Haga H, Nagai H, Shibata H, Iwasaki K, Ogawa Y, Ahiko T, Ihara K 1991 Incidence of and circumstances related to falls among the elderly in a Japanese community (in Japanese, English abstract). Jpn J Public Health 38:735742.
  • 21
    Yasumura S, Haga H, Nagai H, Suzuki T, Amano H, Shibata H 1994 Rate of falls and the correlates among elderly people living in an urban community in Japan Age Ageing 23:323327.
  • 22
    Campbell AJ, Reinken J, Allan BC, Martinez GS 1981 Falls in old age: A study of frequency and related clinical factors Age Ageing 10:264270.
  • 23
    Nevitt MC, Cummings SR, Kidd S, Black D 1989 Risk factors for recurrent nonsyncopal falls: A prospective study JAMA 261:26632668.
  • 24
    Lach HW, Reed AT, Arfken CL, Miller JP, Paige GD, Birge SJ, Peck WA 1991 Falls in the elderly: Reliability of a classification system J Am Geriatr Soc 39:197202.
  • 25
    Gibson MJ 1990 Falls in later life. In: KaneRL, EvansJG, MacfadyenD (eds.) Improving the Health of Older People: A World View. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K., pp. 296315.
  • 26
    Arfken CL, Lach HW, Birge SJ, Miller JP 1994 The prevalence and correlates of fear of falling in elderly persons living in the community Am J Public Health 84:565570.
  • 27
    Nevitt MC, Cummings SR, Hudes ES 1991 Risk factors for injurious falls: A prospective study J Gerontol 46:M164M170.
  • 28
    Cummings SR, Cauley JA, Palermo L, Ross PD, Wasnich RD, Black D, Faulkner KG 1994 Racial differences in hip axis lengths might explain racial differences in rates of hip fracture Osteoporos Int 4:226229.
  • 29
    Nakamura T, Turner CH, Yoshikawa T, Slemenda CW, Peacock M, Burr DB, Mizuno Y, Orimo H, Ouchi Y, Johnston CC Jr 1994 Do variations in hip geometry explain differences in hip fracture risk between Japanese and white Americans? J Bone Miner Res 9:10711076.
  • 30
    Faulkner KG, Cummings SR, Black D, Palermo L, Gluer CC, Genant HK 1993 Simple measurement of femoral geometry predicts hip fracture J Bone Miner Res 8:12111217.