• 1
    Ensrud K, Black D, Vogt T, Ettinger B, Rubin S, Cummings S 1996 Correlates of kyphosis in osteopenic postmenopausal women. J Am Geriatric Soc 45:682687.
  • 2
    Ettinger B, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Rundle AC, Cauley JA, Cummings SR, Genant HK 1992 Contribution of vertebral deformities to chronic back pain and disability. J Bone Miner Res 7:449456.
  • 3
    Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 1992 Incidence of clinically diagnosed verterbral fractures: A population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1985–1989. J Bone Miner Res 7:221227.
  • 4
    Storm T, Thamsborg G, Steiniche T, Genant HK, Sorenson OH 1990 Effect of intermittent cyclical etidronate therapy on bone mass and fracture rate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 322:12651271.
  • 5
    Lufkin EG, Wahner HW, O'Fallon WM, Hodgson SF, Kotowicz MA, Lane AW, Judd HL, Caplan RH, Riggs BL 1992 Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with transdermal estrogen. Ann Intern Med 117:19.
  • 6
    Ross PD, Davis JW, Wasnich RD 1993 Bone mass and beyond: Risk factors for fractures. Calcif Tissue Int 53 (Suppl 1):S134S138.
  • 7
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Thompson D 1996 Alendronate reduces risk of vertebral and clinical fractures in women with existing vertebral fractures: Results of the Fracture Intervention Trial. J Bone Miner Res 11 (Suppl 1):S151.
  • 8
    Genant HK, Jergas M, Palermo L, Nevitt M, Valentin RS, Black D, Cummings SR 1996 Comparison of semiquantitative visual and quantitative morphometric assessment of prevalent and incident vertebral fractures in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 11:984996.
  • 9
    Genant HK, Wu CY, Van Kuijk C, Nevitt MC 1993 Vertebral fracture assessment using a semiquantitative technique. J Bone Miner Res 8:11371148.
  • 10
    McCloskey EV, Spector TD, Eyres KS, Fern ED, O'Rourke N, Vasikaran S, Kanis JA 1993 The assessment of vertebral deformity: A method for use in population studies and clinical trials. Osteoporos Int 3:138147.
  • 11
    Minne HW, Leidig G, Wüster C, Siromachkostov L, Baldauf G, Bickel R, Sauer P, Lojen M, Ziegler R 1988 A newly developed spine deformity index (SDI) to quantitate vertebral crush fractures in patients with osteoporosis. Bone Miner 3:335349.
  • 12
    Melton LJ Epidemiology of vertebral fractures. In: ChristiansenC, JohansenJS, RiisBJ (eds.) Osteoporosis. København K, Denmark, pp. 3337.
  • 13
    Eastell R, Cedel SC, Wahner HW, Riggs BL, Melton LJ 1991 Classification of vertebral fractures. J Bone Miner Res 6:207215.
  • 14
    Black DM, Palermo L, Nevitt MC, Genant HK, Epstein R, San Valentin R, Cummings SR 1995 Comparison of methods for defining prevalent vertebral deformities: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. J Bone Miner Res 10:890902.
  • 15
    Riggs BL, Seeman E, Hodgson SF, Taves DR, O'Fallon WM 1982 Effect of the fluoride/calcium regimen on vertebral fracture occurrence in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 306:446450.
  • 16
    Watts NB, Harris ST, Genant HK 1990 Intermittent cyclical etidronate treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 323:7379.
  • 17
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Nevitt MC, Bauer DC, Genant HK, Haskell WL, Marcus R, Ott SM, Torner JC, Quandt SA, Reiss TF, Ensrud KE 1996 Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Lancet 348:15351541.
  • 18
    National Osteoporosis Foundation Working Group on Vertebral Fractures 1995 Assessing vertebral fractures: A report by the National Osteoporosis Working Group on Vertebral Fractures. J Bone Miner Res 10:518523.
  • 19
    Smith-Bindman R, Steiger P, Cummings SR, Genant HK 1991 The index of radiographic area (IRA): A new approach to estimating the severity of vertebral deformity. Bone Miner 15:137150.
  • 20
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC 1990 Appendicular bone density and age predict hip fracture in women. JAMA 263:665668.
  • 21
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Stone K, Hudes E, Palermo L, Steiger P 1991 A new approach to defining normal vertebral dimensions. J Bone Miner Res 6:883892.
  • 22
    Sauer P, Leidig G, Minne HW, Duckeck G, Schwarz W, Siromachkostov L, Ziegler R 1991 Spine deformity index (SDI) versus other objective procedures of vertebral fracture identification in patients with osteoporosis: A comparative study. J Bone Miner Res 6:227238.
  • 23
    O'Neill TW, Varlow J, Felsenberg D, Johnell O, Weber K, Marchant F, Delmas PD, Cooper C, Kanis J, Silman AJ 1994 Variation in vertebral height ratios in population studies. J Bone Miner Res 9:18951907.
  • 24
    Black D, Palermo L Use of vertebral reference values to define prevalent vertebral deformities. In: GenantH, JergasM, vn KuijkC (eds.) Vertebral Fracture in Osteoporosis. Radiology Research and Education Foundation, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A., pp. 189204.
  • 25
    Steiger P, Cummings SR, Black DM, Spencer NE, Genant HK 1992 Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65. J Bone Miner Res 7:625632.
  • 26
    Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, 1st ed. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, IL, U.S.A.
  • 27
    Fleiss JL Statistical Methods of Rates and Proportions, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, U.S.A.
  • 28
    Efron B, Tibshirani RJ An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman & Hall, New York, NY, U.S.A.
  • 29
    Hui SL, Slemenda CW, Johnston CC 1992 A method for comparing fracture predictors. J Bone Miner Res 7 (Suppl 1):S189.
  • 30
    Wu CY, Li J, Jergas M, Genant HK 1995 Comparison of semiquantitative and quantitative techniques for the assessment of prevalent and incident vertebral fractures. Osteoporos Int 5:354370.
  • 31
    Genant HK, Jergas M, Van Kuijk C Vertebral Fracture in Osteoporosis. Radiology Research and Educational Foundation, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.