• 1
    Mullender MG, van der Meer DD, Huiskes R, Lips P 1996 Osteocyte density changes in aging and osteoporosis Bone 18:109113.
  • 2
    Bergman RJ, Gazit D, Kahn AJ, Gruber H, McDougall S, Hahn TJ 1996 Age-related changes in osteogenic stem cells in mice J Bone Miner Res 11:568577.
  • 3
    Egrise D, Martin D, Vienne A, Neve P, Schoutens A 1992 The number of fibroblastic colonies formed from bone marrow is decreased and the in vitro proliferation rate of trabecular bone cells increased in aged rats Bone 13:355361.
  • 4
    Majors AK, Boehm CA, Nitto H, Midura RJ, Muschler GF 1997 Characterization of human bone marrow stromal cells with respect to osteoblastic differentiation J Orthop Res 15:546557.
  • 5
    Meunier P, Aaron J, Edouard C, Vignon G 1971 Osteoporosis and the replacement of cell populations of the marrow by adipose tissue: A quantitative study of 84 iliac bone biopsies Clin Orthop 80:147154.
  • 6
    Burkhardt R, Kettner G, Bohm W, Schmidmeir M, Schlag R, Frisch B, Mallmann B, Eisenmenger W, Gilg T 1987 Changes in trabecular bone, hematopoeisis and bone marrow vessels in aplastic anemia, primary osteoporosis, and old age: A comparative histomorphometric study Bone 8:157164.
  • 7
    Bruder SP, Fink DJ, Caplan AI 1994 Mesenchymal stem cells in bone development, bone repair, and skeletal regeneration therapy J Cell Biochem 56:283294.
  • 8
    Reddi AH 1995 Bone morphogenetic proteins, bone marrow stromal cells, and mesenchymal stem cells: Maureen Owen revisited Clin Orthop 313:115119.
  • 9
    Simmons DJ 1996 The in vivo role of bone marrow fibroblast-like stromal cells [editorial] Calcif Tissue Int 58:129132.
  • 10
    Diascro DD, Vogel RL, Johnson TE, Witherup KM, Pitzenberger SM, Rutledge SJ, Prescott DJ, Rodan GA, Schmidt A 1998 High fatty acid content in rabbit serum is responsible for the differentiation of osteoblasts into adipocyte-like cells J Bone Miner Res 13:96106.
  • 11
    Nuttal ME, Patton AJ, Olivera DL, Nadeau DP, Gowen M 1998 Human trabecular bone cells are able to express both osteoblastic and adipocytic phenotype: Implications for osteopenic disorders J Bone Miner Res 13:371382.
  • 12
    Stein G, Lian J 1993 Molecular mechanisms mediating proliferation/differentiation interrelationships during progressive development of the osteoblast phenotype Endocr Rev 14:424442.
  • 13
    Ailhaud G, Grimaldi P, Negrel R 1992 Cellular and molecular aspects of adipose tissue development Annu Rev Nutr 12:207233.
  • 14
    Spiegelman B 1988 Regulation of gene expression in the adipocyte: Implications for the obesity and proto-oncogene function Trends Genet 4:203207.
  • 15
    Tontonoz P, Hu E, Spiegelman BM 1994 Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor [published erratum appears in Cell 1995 80: following 957] Cell 79:11471156.
  • 16
    Brun RP, Tontonoz P, Forman BM, Ellis R, Chen J, Evans RM, Spiegelman BM 1996 Differential activation of adipogenesis by multiple PPAR isoforms Genes Dev 10:974984.
  • 17
    Tontonoz P, Hu E, Graves RA, Budavari AI, Spiegelman BM 1994 mPPAR gamma 2: Tissue-specific regulator of an adipocyte enhancer Genes Dev 8:12241234.
  • 18
    Parhami F, Morrow AD, Balucan J, Leitinger N, Watson AD, Tintut Y, Berliner JA, Demer LL 1997 Lipid oxidation products have opposite effects on calcifying vascular cell and bone cell differentiation: A possible explanation for the paradox of arterial calcification in osteoporotic patients Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17:680687.
  • 19
    Parhami F, Demer LL 1997 Arterial calcification in face of osteoporosis in ageing: Can we blame oxidized lipids? Curr Opin Lipidol 8:312314.
  • 20
    Davis R 1993 The mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways J Biol Chem 268:1455314556.
  • 21
    Robinson MJ, Cobb MH 1997 Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways Curr Opin Cell Biol 9:180186.
  • 22
    Maniotopoulos C, Sodek J, Melcher A 1988 Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats Cell Tissue Res 254:317330.
  • 23
    Malaval L, Modrowski D, Gupta AK, Aubin JE 1994 Cellular expression of bone-related proteins during in vitro osteogenesis in rat bone marrow stromal cell cultures J Cell Physiol 158:555572.
  • 24
    Tintut Y, Parhami F, Bostrom K, Jackson SM, Demer LL 1998 cAMP stimulates osteoblast-like differentiation of calcifying vascular cells: Potential signaling pathway for vascular calcification J Biol Chem 273:75477553.
  • 25
    Tugwood J, Isabelle I, Anderson R, Bundell K, McPheat W, Green S 1992 The mouse peroxisome proliferator activated receptor recognizes a response element in the 5′ flanking sequence of the rat acyl CoA oxidase gene EMBO J 11:433439.
  • 26
    Elbrecht A, Chen Y, Cullinan CA, Hayes N, Leibowitz M, Moller DE, Berger J 1996 Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of human peroxisome proliferator activated receptors gamma 1 and gamma 2 Biochem Biophys Res Commun 224:431437.
  • 27
    Spear DH, Ericsson J, Jackson SM, Edwards PA 1994 Identification of a 6-base pair element involved in the sterol-mediated transcriptional regulation of farnesyl diphosphate synthase J Biol Chem 269:2521225218.
  • 28
    Gimble JM, Robinson CE, Wu X, Kelly KA, Rodriguez BR, Kliewer SA, Lehmann JM, Morris DC 1996 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation by thiazolidinediones induces adipogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells Mol Pharmacol 50:10871094.
  • 29
    Torri Y, Hitomi K, Tsukagoshi N 1994 L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate promotes osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3–E1 mediated by accumulation of type I collagen J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 40:229238.
  • 30
    Lynch MP, Stein JL, Stein GS, Lian JB 1995 The influence of type I collagen on the development and maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype in primary and passaged rat calvarial osteoblasts: Modification of expression of genes supporting cell growth, adhesion, and extracellular matrix mineralization Exp Cell Res 216:3545.
  • 31
    Knott L, Bailey AJ 1998 Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: A review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance Bone 22:181187.
  • 32
    Servant MJ, Giasson E, Meloche S 1996 Inhibition of growth factor-induced protein synthesis by a selective MEK inhibitor in aortic smooth muscle cells J Biol Chem 271:1604716052.
  • 33
    Pumiglia KM, Decker SJ 1997 Cell cycle arrest mediated by the MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:448452.
  • 34
    Faure M, Voyno-Yasenetskaya TA, Bourne HR 1994 cAMP and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins stimulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in COS-7 cells J Biol Chem 269:78517854.
  • 35
    Navab M, Hama-Levy S, Van Lenten BJ, Fonarow GC, Cardinez CJ, Castellani LW, Brennan ML, Lusis AJ, Fogelman AM, LaDu BN 1997 Mildly oxidized LDL induces an increased apolipoprotein J/paraoxonase ratio [published erratum appears in J Clin Invest 1997 Jun 15; 99, 3043] J Clin Invest 99:20052019.
  • 36
    Anderson HC 1995 Molecular biology of matrix vesicles Clin Orthop 314:266280.
  • 37
    Klein B, Gal I, Segal S 1993 Studies of the levamisole inhibitory effect on rat stromal-cell commitment to mineralization J Cell Biochem 53:114121.
  • 38
    Whyte MP 1994 Hypophosphatasia and the role of alkaline phosphatase in skeletal mineralization Endocr Rev 15:439461.
  • 39
    Prockop DJ 1997 Marrow stromal cells as stem cells for nonhematopoietic tissues Science 276:7174.
  • 40
    Oreffo RO, Virdi AS, Triffitt JT 1997 Modulation of osteogenesis and adipogenesis by human serum in human bone marrow cultures Eur J Cell Biol 74:251261.
  • 41
    Tontonoz P, Nagy L, Alvarez JG, Thomazy VA, Evans RM 1998 PPAR gamma promotes monocyte/macrophage differentiation and uptake of oxidized LDL Cell 93:241252.
  • 42
    Nagy L, Tontonoz P, Alvarez JG, Chen H, Evans RM 1998 Oxidized LDL regulates macrophage gene expression through ligand activation of PPAR gamma Cell 93:229240.
  • 43
    Bassa BV, Roh DD, Kirschenbaum MA, Kamanna VS 1998 Atherogenic lipoproteins stimulate mesangial cell p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase J Am Soc Nephrol 9:488496.
  • 44
    Kusuhara M, Chait A, Cader A, Berk BC 1997 Oxidized LDL stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinases in smooth muscle cells and macrophages Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17:141148.
  • 45
    Suc I, Meilhac O, Lajoie-Mazenc I, Vandaele J, Jurgens G, Salvayre R, Negre-Salvayre A 1998 Activation of EGF receptor by oxidized LDL FASEB J 12:665671.
  • 46
    Satomura K, Derubeis AR, Fedardo NS, O'Connor KI, Kuznetsov SA, Rowe DW, Young MF, Robey PG 1998 Receptor tyrosine kinase expression in human bone marrow stromal cells J Cell Physiol 177:426438.
  • 47
    Tan MS, Lee YJ, Shin SJ, Tsai JH 1994 Regulation of heparin binding- epidermal growth factor like growth factor gene expression by LDL and oxidized LDL in rat mesangial cells Biochem Biophys Res Commun 202:10011008.
  • 48
    Kume N, Gimbrone MA 1994 Lysophosphatidylcholine transcriptionally induces growth factor gene expression in cultured human endothelial cells J Clin Invest 93:907911.
  • 49
    Hussain MM, Mahley RW, Boyles JK, Lindquist PA, Brecht WJ, Innerarity TL 1989 Chylomicron metabolism J Biol Chem 264:1793117938.
  • 50
    Hussain MM, Mahley RW, Boyles JK, Fainaru M, Brecht WJ, Lindquist PA 1989 Chylomicron-chylomicron remnant clearance by liver and bone marrow in rabbits J Biol Chem 264:95719582.
  • 51
    Atkinson TG, Barker HJ, Meckling-Gill KA 1997 Incorporation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in tissues and enhanced bone marrow cellularity with docosahexaenoic acid feeding in post-weanling Fischer 344 rats Lipids 32:293302.
  • 52
    Li Y, Watkins BA 1998 Conjugated linoleic acids alter bone fatty acid composition and reduce ex vivo prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in rats fed n-6 or n-3 fatty acids Lipids 33:417425.
  • 53
    Wohl G, Loehrke L, Watkins B, Zernicke R 1998 Effects of high-fat diet on mature bone mineral content, structure, and mechanical properties Calcif Tissue Int 63:7479.
  • 54
    Banks LM, Lees B, MacSweeney JE, Stevenson JC 1994 Effect of degenerative spinal and aortic calcification on bone density measurements in post-menopausal women: Links between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease? Eur J Clin Invest 24:813817.
  • 55
    Laroche M, Pouilles JM, Ribot C, Bendayan P, Bernard J, Boccalon H, Mazieres B 1994 Comparison of the bone mineral content of the lower limbs in men with ischaemic atherosclerotic disease Clin Rheumatol 13:611614.
  • 56
    Witztum J, Steinberg D 1991 Role of oxidized low density lipoprotein in atherogenesis J Clin Invest 88:17851792.