• 1
    Anonymous 1993 Consensus Development Conference: Diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med 94:646650.
  • 2
    Bonjour JP, Theintz G, Buchs B, Slosman D, Rizzoli R 1991 Critical years and stages of puberty for spinal and femoral bone mass accumulation during adolescence J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:555563.
  • 3
    Dyson K, Blimkie CJR, Davison S, Webber CE, Adachi JD 1997 Gymnastic training and bone density in pre-adolescent females Med Sci Sports Exerc 29:443450.
  • 4
    Nichols JF, Spindler AA, LaFave KL, Sartoris DJ 1995 A comparison of bone mineral density and hormone status of periadolescent gymnasts, swimmers, and controls Med Exerc Nutr Health 4:101106.
  • 5
    Morris FL, Naughton GA, Gibbs JL, Carlson JS, Wark JD 1997 Prospective ten-month exercise intervention in premenarcheal girls: Positive effects on bone and lean mass J Bone Miner Res 12:14531462.
  • 6
    O'Conner JA, Lanyon LE, MacFie H 1982 The influence of strain rate on adaptive remodelling J Biomech 15:767781.
  • 7
    Lanyon LE, Rubin CT 1984 Static vs. dynamic loads as an influence on bone remodelling J Biomech 17:897905.
  • 8
    Rubin CT, Lanyon LE 1985 Regulation of bone mass by mechanical strain magnitude Calcif Tissue Int 27:411417.
  • 9
    Parfitt AM 1994 The two faces of growth: Benefits and risks to bone integrity Osteoporos Int 4:382398.
  • 10
    Njeh CF, Boivin CM, Langton CM 1997 The role of ultrasound in the assessment of osteoporosis: A review Osteoporos Int 7:722.
  • 11
    Hans D, Dargent-Molina P, Schott AM, Sebert JL, Cormier C, Kotski PO, Delmas PD, Pouilles JM, Breart G, Meunier PJ 1996 Ultrasonographic heel measurements to predict hip fracture in elderly women: The EPIDOS prospective study Lancet 348:511514.
  • 12
    Gluer CC, Cummings SR, Bauer DC, Stone K, Pressman A, Mathur A, Genant HK 1996 Osteoporosis: Association of recent fractures with quantitative U.S. findings Radiology 199:725732.
  • 13
    Jones PRM, Hardman AE, Hudson A, Norgan NG 1991 Influence of brisk walking on the broadband ultrasonic attenuation of the calcaneus in previously sedentary women aged 30–61 years Calcif Tissue Int 49:112115.
  • 14
    Jaworski M, Lebiedowski M, Lorenc RS, Trempe J 1995 Ultrasound bone measurement in pediatric subjects Calcif Tissue Int 56:368371.
  • 15
    Grimston SK, Willows ND, Hanley DA 1993 Mechanical loading regime and its relationship to bone mineral density in children Med Sci Sports Exerc 25:12031210.
  • 16
    Marshall WA, Tanner JM 1970 Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys Arch Dis Child 45:1323.
  • 17
    Duke PM, Litt IF, Gross RT 1980 Adolescents' self assessment of sexual maturation Pediatrics 66:918920.
  • 18
    Malina RM, Roche AF 1983 Manual of Physical Status and Performance in Childhood, Vol. 2. Plenum Press, New York, NY, U.S.A.
  • 19
    Klein KO, Martha PM, Blizzard RM, Herbst DB, Rogol ad 1996 A longitudinal assessment of hormonal and physical alterations during normal puberty in boys II. Estrogen levels as determined by an ultrasensitive bioassay J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:32033207.
  • 20
    Seeman E, Hopper JL, Bach LA, Cooper ME, Parkinson E, McKay J, Jerums G 1989 Reduced bone mass in daughters of women with osteoporosis N Engl J Med 320:554558.
  • 21
    Bass S, Pearce G, Bradney M, Hendrich E, Delmas PD, Harding A, Seeman E 1998 Exercise before puberty may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood: Studies in active prepubertal and retired female gymnasts J Bone Miner Res 13:500507.
  • 22
    Frost HM 1992 The role of changes in mechanical usage set points in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis J Bone Miner Res 7:253261.
  • 23
    Glüer CC, Wu CY, Jergas M, Goldstein SA, Genant HK 1994 Three quantitative ultrasound parameters reflect bone structure Calcif Tissue Int 55:4652.
  • 24
    Glüer CC, Wu CY, Genant HK 1993 Broadband ultrasound attenuation signals depend on trabecular orientation: An in vitro study Osteoporos Int 3:185191.
  • 25
    Langton CM, Evans GP, Hodgskinson R, Riggs CM 1990 Ultrasonic, elastic and structural properties of cancellous bone. In: RingEFJ (ed.) Current Research in Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Measurements. British Institute of Radiology, London, U.K., pp. 1011.
  • 26
    Collet P, Uebelhart D, Vico L, Moro L, Hartmann D, Roth M, Alexandre C 1997 Effects of 1- and 6-month spaceflight on bone mass and biochemistry in two humans Bone 20:547551.
  • 27
    Leichter I, Simkin A, Margulies JY, Bivas A, Steinberg R, Giladi M, Milgrom C 1989 Gain in mass density of bone following strenuous physical activity J Orthop Res 7:8690.
  • 28
    Boonen S, Nicholson PH, Lowet G, Cheng XG, Verbeke G, Lasaffre E, Aerssens J, Dequeker J 1997 Determinants of age-associated changes in os calcis ultrasonic indices in elderly women: Potential involvement of geriatric hyposomatotropism in bone fragility Age Ageing 26:139146.
  • 29
    Bagi CM, DeLeon E, Brommage R, Rosen D, Sommer A 1995 Treatment of ovariectomized rats with the complex of rhIGF-I/IGFBP-3 increases cortical and cancellous bone mass and improves structure in the femoral neck Calcif Tissue Int 57:4046.
  • 30
    Nichols DL, Sanborn CF, Bonnick SL, Ben-Ezra V, Gench B, DiMarco NM 1994 The effects of gymnastics training on bone mineral density Med Sci Sports Exerc 26:12201225.
  • 31
    Lean JM, Jagger CJ, Chambers TJ, Chow JW 1995 Increased insulin-like growth factor I mRNA expression in rat osteocytes in response to mechanical stimulation Am J Physiol 268:E318E327.
  • 32
    Mohan S, Baylink DJ 1996 Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins in serum: Do they have additional roles besides modulating the endocrine IGF actions? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:38173820.
  • 33
    Lappe JM, Recker RR, Weidenbusch D 1998 Influence of activity level on patellar ultrasound transmission velocity in children Calcif Tissue Int 8:3946.
  • 34
    Einhorn TA 1996 Biomechanics of bone. In: BilezikianJP, RaiszLG, RodanGA (eds.) Principles of Bone Biology, Academic Press, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 2537.
  • 35
    Gilsanz V, Boechat MI, Roe TF, Loro ML, Sayre JW, Goodman WG 1994 Gender differences in vertebral body sizes in children and adolescents Radiology 190:673677.
  • 36
    Miller CG, Herd RJM, Ramalingam T, Fogelman I, Blake GM 1993 Ultrasonic velocity measurements through the calcaneus: Which velocity should be measured? Osteoporos Int 3:3135.
  • 37
    Katzman DK, Bachrach LK, Carter DR, Marcus R 1991 Clinical and anthropometric correlates of bone mineral acquisition in healthy adolescent girls J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:13321339.
  • 38
    Daly RM, Rich PA, Klein R 1997 Influence of high impact loading on ultrasound bone measurements in children: A cross-sectional report Calcif Tissue Int 60:401404.
  • 39
    Eliakim A, Raisz LG, Brasel JA, Cooper DM 1997 Evidence for increased bone formation following a brief endurance-type training intervention in adolescent males J Bone Miner Res 12:17081713.
  • 40
    Bennell KL, Malcom SA, Khan KM, Thomas SA, Reid SJ, Brukner PD, Ebeling PR, Wark JD 1997 Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: A 12-month longitudinal study Bone 20:477484.
  • 41
    Johansen JS, Giwercman A, Hartwell D, Nielsen CT, Price PA, Christiansen C, Skakkabæk NE 1988 Serum bone Gla-protein as a marker of bone growth in children and adolescents: Correlation with age, height, serum insulin-like growth factor I, and serum testosterone J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:273278.