• 1
    Slemenda C 1997 Prevention of hip fractures: Risk factor modification Am J Med 103(2A):65S73S.
  • 2
    Hayes WC, Myers ER, Robinovitch SN, Van Den Kroonenberg A, Courtney AC, McMahon TA 1996 Etiology and prevention of age-related hip fractures Bone 18:77S86S.
  • 3
    Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Claus EB, Garrett P, Gottschalk M, Koch ML, Trainor K, Horwitz RI 1994 A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community N Engl J Med 331:821827.
  • 4
    Prince RL, Smith M, Dick IM, Price RI, Webb PG, Henderson NK, Harris MM 1991 Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: A comparative study of exercise, calcium supplementation, and hormone-replacement therapy N Engl J Med 325:11891195.
  • 5
    The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial 1996 Effects of hormone therapy on bone mineral density: Results from the postmenopausal estrogen/progestin interventions (PEPI) trial JAMA 276:13891396.
  • 6
    Nieves JW, Komar L, Cosman F, Lindsay R 1998 Calcium potentiates the effect of estrogen and calcitonin on bone mass: Review and analysis Am J Clin Nutr 67:1824.
  • 7
    Vuori I 1996 Peak bone mass and physical activity: A short review Nutr Rev 54:11S14S.
  • 8
    Drinkwater, Grimston, Raab-Cullen, Snow-Harter 1995 ACSM position stand on osteoporosis and exercise Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:ivii.
  • 9
    Heinonen A, Oja P, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Haapasalo H, Mänttäri A, Vuori I 1995 Bone mineral density in female athletes representing sports with different loading characteristics of the skeleton Bone 17:197203.
  • 10
    Uusi-Rasi K, Sievänen H, Vuori I, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P 1998 Associations of physical activity and calcium intake with bone mass and size in healthy women at different ages J Bone Miner Res 13:133142.
  • 11
    Myers AH, Young Y, Langlois JA 1996 Prevention of falls in the elderly Bone 18:87S101S.
  • 12
    Province MA, Hadley EC, Hornbrook MC, Lipsitz LA, Miller JP, Mulrow CD, Ory MG, Sattin RW, Tinetti ME, Wolf SL, for the FICSIT Group 1995 The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients JAMA 273:13411347.
  • 13
    Heinonen A, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Oja P, Pasanen M, Rinne M, Uusi-Rasi K, Vuori I 1996 Randomised controlled trial of effect of high-impact exercise on selected risk factors for osteoporotic fractures Lancet 348:13431347.
  • 14
    Nelson ME, Fiatarone MA, Morganti CM, Trice I, Greenberg RA, Evans W 1994 Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures: A randomized controlled trial JAMA 272:19091914.
  • 15
    Kanis JA, Johnell O, Gullberg B, Allander E, Dilsen G, Gennari C, Vaz LAA, Lyritis GP, Mazzuoli G, Miravet L, Passeri M, Peres Cano R, Rapado A, Ribot C 1992 Evidence for efficacy of drugs affecting bone metabolism in preventing hip fracture Br Med J 305:11241128.
  • 16
    Lufkin EG, Wahner HW, O'Fallon WM, Hodgson SF, Kotowicz MA, Lane AW, Judd HL, Caplan RH, Riggs BL 1992 Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with transdermal estrogen Ann Intern Med 117:19.
  • 17
    Nygård C-H, Kilbom Å, Hjelm EW, Winkel J, Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group 1994 Life-time occupational exposure to heavy work and individual physical capacity Int J Ind Ergon 14:365372.
  • 18
    Uusi-Rasi K, Salmi H-M, Fogelholm M 1994 Estimation of calcium and riboflavin intake by a short diary Scand J Nutr 38:122124.
  • 19
    Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Viitasalo J, Pasanen M, Oja P, Vuori I 1994 Reproducibility of computer measurement of maximal isometric strength and electromyography in sedentary middle-aged women Eur J Appl Physiol 68:310314.
  • 20
    Sillanpää J, Sievänen H, Heinonen A 1995 Reproducibility of a novel measurement and analytic method for jump testing. In: HäkkinenK, KeskinenKL, KomiPV, MeroA (eds.) Book of abstracts, XVth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics. Jyväskylä, Finland, pp. 850851.
  • 21
    Tegner Y, Lysholm J, Gillquist J 1986 A performance test to monitor rehabilitation and evaluate anterior cruciate ligament injuries Am J Sports Med 14:156159.
  • 22
    Suni JH, Oja P, Laukkanen RT, Miilunpalo SI, Pasanen ME, Vuori MI, Vartiainen T-M, Bös K 1996 Health-related fitness test battery for adults: Aspects of reliability Arch Phys Med Rehabil 77:399405.
  • 23
    Oja P, Laukkanen R, Pasanen M, Tyry T, Vuori I 1991 A 2-km walking test for assessing the cardiorespiratory fitness of healthy adults Int J Sports Med 12:356362.
  • 24
    Sievänen H, Kannus P, Nieminen V, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1996 Estimation of various mechanical characteristics of human bones using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: Methodology and precision Bone 18:17S27S.
  • 25
    Sievänen H, Koskue V, Rauhio A, Kannus P, Heinonen A, Vuori I 1998 Peripheral quantitative computed tomography in human long bones: Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo precision J Bone Miner Res 13:871882.
  • 26
    McMurdo MET, Mole PA, Paterson CR 1997 Controlled trial of weight bearing exercise in older women in relation to bone density and falls Br Med J 314:569.
  • 27
    Naessen T, Lindmark B, Larsen H-C 1997 Better postural balance in elderly women receiving estrogens Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:412416.
  • 28
    Armstrong AL, Oborne J, Coupland CA, MacPherson MB, Bassey EJ, Wallace WA 1996 Effects of hormone replacement therapy on muscle performance and balance in post-menopausal women Clin Sci 91:685690.
  • 29
    Brown M, Birge SJ, Kohrt WM 1997 Hormone replacement therapy does not augment gains in muscle strength or fat-free mass in response to weight-bearing exercise J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 52:B166B170.
  • 30
    Heikkinen J, Kyllönen E, Kurttila-Matero E, Wilén-Rosenqvist G, Lankinen KS, Rita H, Väänänen HK 1997 HRT and exercise: Effects on bone density, muscle strength and lipid metabolism, a placebo controlled 2-year prospective trial on two estrogen-progestin regimens in healthy postmenopausal women Maturitas 26:139149.
  • 31
    Lamberts SWJ, van den Beld AW, van der Lely A-J 1997 The endocrinology of aging Science 278:419424.
  • 32
    Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sankelo M, Sievänen H, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1995 Effect of starting age of physical activity on bone mass in the dominant arm of tennis and squash players Ann Intern Med 123:2731.
  • 33
    Uusi-Rasi K, Nygård C-H, Oja P, Pasanen M, Sievänen H, Vuori I 1994 Walking at work and bone mineral density of premenopausal women Osteoporos Int 4:336340.
  • 34
    Cauley JA, Seeley DG, Ensrud K, Ettinger B, Black D, Cummings SR 1995 Estrogen replacement therapy in older women: Study of ostroporotic fractures research group Ann Intern Med 122:916.
  • 35
    Lanyon LE 1996 Using functional loading to influence bone mass and architecture: Objectives, mechanisms, and relationship with estrogen of the mechanically adaptive process in bone Bone 18:37S43S.
  • 36
    Notelovitz M, Martin D, Tesar R, Khan FY, Probart C, Fields C, McKenzie L 1991 Estrogen therapy and variable-resistance weight training increase bone mineral in surgically menopausal women J Bone Miner Res 6:583590.
  • 37
    Kohrt WM, Snead DB, Slatopolsky E, Birge SJ 1995 Additive effects of weight-bearing exercise and estrogen on bone mineral density in older women J Bone Miner Res 10:13031311.