SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Suda T, Takahashi N, Martin TJ 1992 Modulation of osteoclast differentiation. Endocr Rev 13:6680.
  • 2
    Suda T, Nakamura I, Jimi E, Takahashi N 1997 Regulation of osteoclast function. J Bone Miner Res 12:869879.
  • 3
    Roodman GR 1996 Advances in bone biology: The osteoclast. Endocr Rev 17:308332.
  • 4
    Reddy SV, Roodman GD 1998 Control of osteoclast differentiation. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Exp 8:117.
  • 5
    Pacifici R 1996 Estrogen, cytokines, and pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 11:10431051.
  • 6
    Manolagas SC, Jilka RL 1995 Bone marrow, cytokines, and bone remodeling: emerging insights into the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 332:305311.
  • 7
    Jilka RL 1998 Cytokines, bone remodeling, and estrogen deficiency: A 1998 update. Bone 23:7581.
  • 8
    Simonet WS, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR, Kelley M, Chang M-S, Lüthy R, Nguyen HQ, Wooden S, Bennett L, Boone T, Shimamoto G, DeRose M, Eliott R, Colombero A, Tan H-L, Trail G, Sullivan J, Davy E, Bucay N, Renshaw-Gegg L, Hughes TM, Hill D, Pattison W, Campbell P, Sander S, Van G, Tarpley J, Derby P, Lee R, Amgen EST Program, Boyle WJ 1997 Osteoprotegerin: A novel secreted protein involved in the regulation of bone density. Cell 89:309319.
  • 9
    Yasuda H, Shima N, Nakagawa N, Mochizuki S-I, Yano K, Fujise N, Sato Y, Goto M, Yamaguchi K, Kuriyama M, Kanno T, Murakami A, Tsuda E, Morinaga T, Higashio K 1998 Identity of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF) and osteoprotegerin (OPG): A mechanism by which OPG/OCIF inhibits osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Endocrinology 39:13291337.
  • 10
    Lacey DL, Timms E, Tan H-L, Kelley MJ, Dunstan CR, Burgess T, Elliott R, Colombero A, Elliott G, Scully S, Hsu H, Sullivan J, Hawkins N, Davy E, Capparelli C, Eli A, Qian Y-X, Kaufman S, Sarosi I, Shalhoub V, Senaldi G, Guo J, Delaney J, Boyle WJ 1998 Osteoprotegerin (OPG) ligand is a cytokine that regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation. Cell 93:165176.
  • 11
    Yasuda H, Shima N, Nakagawa N, Yamaguchi K, Kinosaki M, Mochizuki S-I, Tomoyasu A, Yano K, Goto M, Murakami A, Tsuda E, Morinaga T, Higashio K, Udagawa N, Takahashi N, Suda T 1998 Osteoclast differentiation factor is a ligand for osteoprotege- rin/osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor and is identical to TRANCE/RANKL. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95:35973602.
  • 12
    Wong BR, Rho J, Arron J, Robinson E, Orlinick J, Chao M, Kalachikov S, Cayani E, Barlett FS, Frankel WN, Young Lee S, Choi Y 1997 TRANCE is a novel ligand of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that activates c-jun N-terminal kinase in T cells. J Biol Chem 272:2519025194.
  • 13
    Anderson MA, Maraskovsky E, Billingsley WL, Dougall WC, Tometsko ME, Roux ER, Teepe MC, DuBose RF, Cosman D, Galibert L 1997 A homologue of the TNF receptor and its ligand enhance T-cell growth and dendritic-cell function. Nature 390:175179.
  • 14
    O'Brien CA, Farrar NC, Manolagas SC 1998 Identification of an OSF-2 binding sitein the murine RANKL/OPGL gene promoter: A potential link between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis (abstract 1003). Bone 23(Suppl 1):S149.
  • 15
    Gao Y-H, Shinki T, Yuase T, Kataoka-Enomoto H, Komori T, Suda T, Yamaguchi A 1998 Potential role of cbfa1, an essential transcriptional factor for osteoblast differentiation, in osteoclastogenesis: Regulation of mRNA expression of osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF). Biochem Biophys Res Com 252:697702.
  • 16
    Hofbauer LC, Gori F, Riggs BL, Dunstan CR, Lacey DL, Spelsberg TC, Khosla S 1999 Stimulation of osteoprotegerin ligand and inhibition of osteoprotegerin production by glucocorticoids in human osteoblastic lineage cells: Potential paracrine mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Endocrinology 140:in press.
  • 17
    Hofbauer LC, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR, Spelsberg TC, Riggs BL, Khosla S 1999 Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not interleukin-6 stimulate osteoprotegerin ligand gene expression in human osteoblastic cells. Bone 24:in press.
  • 18
    Takai H, Kanematsu M, Yano K, Tsuda E, Higashio K, Ikeda K, Watanabe K, Yamada Y 1998 Transforming growth factor-β stimulates the production of osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor by bone marrow stromal cells. J Biol Chem 273:2709127096.
  • 19
    Quinn JMW, Elliott J, Gillespie MT, Martin TJ 1998 A combination of osteoclast differentiation factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor is sufficient for both human and mouse osteoclast formation in vitro. Endocrinology 139:44244427.
  • 20
    Matsuzaki K, Udagawa N, Takahashi N, Yamaguchi K, Yasuda H, Shima N, Morinaga T, Toyama Y, Yabe Y, Higashio K, Suda T 1998 Osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF) induces osteoclast-like cell formation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Biochem Biophys Res Com 246:199204.
  • 21
    Fuller K, Wong B, Fox S, Choi Y, Chambers TJ 1998 TRANCE is necessary and sufficient for osteoblast-mediated activation of bone resorption in osteoclasts. J Exp Med 188:9971001.
  • 22
    Burgess TL, Qian Y, Kaufman S, Ring BD, Van G, Capparelli C, Kelley M, Hsu H, Boyle WJ, Dunstan CR, Hu S, Lacey DL 1999 The ligand for osteoprotegerin (OPGL) directly activates mature osteoclasts. J Cell Biol 145:527538.
  • 23
    Lum L, Wong BR, Josien R, Becherer JD, Erdjument-Bromage H, Schlondorff J, Tempst P, Choi Y, Blobel CP 1999 Evidence for a role of a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-converting enzyme-like protease in shedding of TRANCE, a TNF family member involved in osteoclastogenesis and dendritic cell survival. J Biol Chem 274:1361313618.
  • 24
    Yao G-Q, Sun B-h, Hammond EE, Spencer EN, Horowitz MG, Insogna KL, Weir EC 1998 The cell-surface form of colony-stimulating factor-1 is regulated by osteotropic agents and supports formation of multinucleated osteoclast-like cells. J Biol Chem 273:41194128.
  • 25
    Lea CK, Sarma U, Flanagan AM 1999 Macrophage colony stimulating-factor transcripts are differentially regulated in rat bone-marrow by gender hormones. Endocrinology 140:273279.
  • 26
    Tsukii N, Shima N, Mochizuki S, Yamaguchi K, Kinosaki M, Yano K, Shibata O, Udagawa N, Yasuda H, Suda T, Higashio K 1998 Osteoclast differentiation factor mediates an essential signal for bone resorption induced by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, prostaglandin E2, or parathyroid hormone in the microenvironment of bone. Biochem Biophys Res Com 246:337341.
  • 27
    Yamamoto M, Murakami T, Nishikawa M, Tsuda E, Mochizuki S-I, Higashio K, Akatsu T, Motoyoshi N 1998 Hypocalcemic effect of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin in the thyroparathyroidectomized rat. Endocrinology 139:40124015.
  • 28
    Wong BR, Josien R, Young Lee S, Sauter B, Li H-L, Steinman RM, Choi Y 1997 TRANCE (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related activation-induced cytokine), a new TNF family member predominantly expressed in T cells, is a dendritic cell-specific survival factor. J Exp Med 186:20752080.
  • 29
    Kong Y-Y, Yoshida H, Sarosi I, Tan H-L, Timms E, Capparelli C, Morony S, Oliviera-Dos Santos AJ, Van G, Itie A, Khoo W, Wakeham A, Dunstan CR, Lacey DL, Mak TW, Boyle WJ, Penninger JM 1999 OPGL is a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, lymphocyte development and lymph-node organogenesis. Nature 397:315323.
  • 30
    Deguchi K, Yagi H, Inada M, Yoshizaki K, Kishimoto T, Komori T 1999 Excessive extramedullary hematopoiesis in cbfa1-deficient mice with a congenital lack of bone marrow. Biochem Biophys Res Com 255:352359.
  • 31
    Darnay BG, Haridas V, Ni J, Moore PA, Aggarwal BB 1998 Characterization of the intracellular domain of receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK). J Biol Chem 273:2055120555.
  • 32
    Hsu H, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR, Solovyev I, Colombero A, Timms E, Tan H-L, Elliott G, Kelley MJ, Sarosi I, Wang L, Xia X-Z, Elliott R, Chiu L, Black T, Scully S, Capparelli C, Morony S, Shimamoto G, Bass MB, Boyle WJ 1999 Tumor necrosis factor receptor family member RANK mediates osteoclast differentiation and activation induced by osteoprotegerin ligand. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96:35403545.
  • 33
    Nakagawa N, Kinosaki M, Yamaguchi K, Shima N, Yasuda H, Yano K, Morinaga T, Higashio K 1998 RANK is the essential signaling receptor for osteoclast differentiation factor in osteoclastogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Com 253:395400.
  • 34
    Wong BR, Josien R, Young Lee S, Vologodskaia M, Steinman RM, Choi Y 1998 The TRAF family of signal transducers mediates NF-κB activation by the TRANCE receptor. J Biol Chem 273:2835528359.
  • 35
    Iotsova V, Caamano J, Loy J, Yang Y, Lewin A, Bravo R 1997 Osteopetrosis in mice lacking NF-κB1 and NF-κB2. Nature Med 3:12851289.
  • 36
    Wang ZQ, Ovitt C, Grigoriadis AE, Mohle-Steinlein U, Ruther U, Wagner EF 1992 Bone and hematopoietic defects in mice lacking c-fos. Nature 360:741745.
  • 37
    Johnson RS, Spiegelman BM, Papaioannou V 1992 Pleiotropic effects of a null mutation in the c-fos proto-oncogene. Cell 71:577586.
  • 38
    Arch RH, Gedrich RW, Thompson CB 1998 Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs)—A family of adapter proteins that regulates life and death. Genes Dev 12:28212830.
  • 39
    Galibert L, Tometsko ME, Anderson DM, Cosman D, Dougall WC 1998 The involvement of multiple tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factors in the signaling mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB, a member of the TNFR superfamily. J Biol Chem 273:3412034127.
  • 40
    Dadgostar H, Cheng G 1998 An intact zinc finger is required for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation but is dispensible for c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling. J Biol Chem 273:2477524780.
  • 41
    Lomaga MA, Yeh W-C, Sarosi I, Duncan GS, Furlonger C, Ho A, Morony S, Capparelli C, Van G, Kaufman S, van der Heide A, Itie A, Wakeham A, Khoo W, Sasaki T, Cao Z, Penninger JM, Paige CJ, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR, Boyle WJ, Goeddel DV, Mak TW 1999 TRAF6-deficiency results in osteopetrosis and defective interleukin-1, CD40 and LPS signaling. Genes Dev 13:10151024.
  • 42
    Darnay BG, Ni J, Moore PA, Aggarwal BB 1999 Activation of NF-κB by RANK requires tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6 and NF-κB-inducing kinase. Identification of a novel TRAF6 interaction motif. J Biol Chem 274:77247731.
  • 43
    Tsuda E, Goto M, Mochizuki S-I, Yano K, Kobayashi F, Morinaga T, Higashio K 1997 Isolation of a novel cytokine from human fibroblasts that specifically inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Com 234:137142.
  • 44
    Tan KB, Harrop J, Reddy M, Young P, Terrett J, Emery J, Moore G, Truneh A 1997 Characterization of a novel TNF-like ligand and recently described TNF ligand and TNF receptor superfamily genes and their constitutive and inducible expression in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. Gene 204:3546.
  • 45
    Kwon BS, Wang S, Udagawa N, Haridas V, Lee ZH, Kim KK, Oh K-O, Greene J, Li Y, Su J, Gentz R, Aggarwal BB, Ni J 1998 TR1, a new member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, induces fibroblast proliferation and inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. FASEB J 12:845854.
  • 46
    Yun TJ, Chaudhary PM, Shu GL, Frazer JK, Ewings MK, Schwartz SM, Pascual V, Hood LE, Clark EA 1998 OPG/FDCR-1, a TNF receptor family member, is expressed in lymphoid cells and is up-regulated by ligating CD40. J Immunol 161:61136121.
  • 47
    Yamaguchi K, Kinosaki M, Goto M, Koboyashi F, Tsuda E, Morinaga T, Higashio K 1998 Characterization of structural domains of human osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor. J Biol Chem 273:51175123.
  • 48
    Tomoyasu A, Goto M, Fujise N, Mochizuki S, Yasuda H, Morinaga T, Tsuda E, Higashio K 1998 Characterization of monomeric and homodimeric forms of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor. Biochem Biophys Res Com 245:382387.
  • 49
    Akatsu T, Murakami T, Nishikawa M, Ono K, Shinomiya N, Tsuda E, Mochizuki S-I, Yamaguchi K, Kinosaki M, Higashio K, Yamamoto M, Motoyoshi K, Nagata N 1998 Osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor suppresses osteoclast survival by interfering in the interaction of stromal cells with osteoclast. Biochem Biophys Res Com 250:229234.
  • 50
    Vidal NOA, Brändström H, Jonsson KB, Ohlsson C 1998 Osteoprotegerin mRNA is expressed in primary human osteoblast-like cells: Down-regulation by glucocorticoids. J Endocrinol 159:191195.
  • 51
    Hofbauer LC, Dunstan CR, Spelsberg TC, Riggs BL, Khosla S 1998 Osteoprotegerin production by human osteoblast lineage cells is stimulated by vitamin D, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and cytokines. Biochem Biophys Res Com 250:776781.
  • 52
    Hofbauer LC, Khosla S, Dunstan CR, Lacey DL, Spelsberg TC, Riggs BL 1999 Estrogen stimulates gene expression and protein production of osteoprotegerin in human osteoblastic cells. Endocrinology 140:43674370.
  • 53
    Vidal ONA, Sjögren K, Eriksson BI, Ljunggren Ö, Ohlsson C 1998 Osteoprotegerin mRNA is increased by interleukin-α in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and in human osteoblast-like cells. Biochem Biophys Res Com 248:696700.
  • 54
    Brändström H, Jonsson KB, Vidal O, Ljunghall, Ohlsson C, Ljunggren Ö 1998 Tumor necrosis factor-α and -β upregulate the levels of osteoprotegerin mRNA in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Com 248:454457.
  • 55
    Murakami T, Yamamoto M, Yamamoto M, Ono K, Nishikawa M, Nagata N, Motoyoshi K, Akatsu T 1998 Transforming growth factor-β1 increases mRNA levels of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor in osteoblastic/stromal cells and inhibits the survival of murine osteoclast-like cells. Biochem Biophys Res Com 252:747752.
  • 56
    Brändström H, Jonsson KB, Ohlsson C, Vidal O, Ljunghall S, Ljunggren Ö 1998 Regulation of osteoprotegerin mRNA levels by prostaglandin E2 in human bone marrow stroma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Com 247:338341.
  • 57
    Mizuno A, Murakami A, Nakagawa N, Yasuda H, Tsuda E, Morinaga T, Higashio K 1998 Structure of the mouse osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin gene and its expression in embryogenesis. Gene 215:339343.
  • 58
    Miyamoto A, Kunisada T, Hemmi H, Yamane T, Yasuda H, Miyake K, Yamazaki H, Ha-yashi S-I 1998 Establishment and characterization of an immortal macrophage-like cell line inducible to differentiate to osteoclasts. Biochem Biophys Res Com 242:703709.
  • 59
    Emery JG, McDonnell P, Brigham Burke M, Deen KC, Lyn S, Silverman C, Dul E, Appelbaum ER, Eichman C, DiPrinzio R, Dodds RA, James IE, Rosenberg M, Lee JC, Young PR 1998 Osteoprotegerin is a receptor for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL. J Biol Chem 273:1436314367.
  • 60
    Tan H-L, Van G, Scully S, Shimamoto G, Kelley M, Boyle B, Dunstan C, Lacey D 1997 Recombinant osteoprotegerin (OPG), a novel TNF-receptor family member, inhibits in vitro murine osteoclast formation from bone marrow precursors (abstract P213). J Bone Miner Res 12(Suppl 1):S155.
  • 61
    Hakeda Y, Kobayashi Y, Yamaguchi K, Yasuda H, Tsuda E, Higashio K, Miyata T, Kumegawa M 1998 Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF) directly inhibits bone-resorbing activity of isolated mature osteoclasts. Biochem Biophys Res Com 251:796801.
  • 62
    Bucay N, Sarosi I, Dunstan CR, Morony S, Tarpley J, Capparelli C, Scully S, Tan HL, Xu W, Lacey DL, Boyle WJ, Simonet WS 1998 Osteoprotegerin-deficient mice develop early onset osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Genes Dev 12:12601268.
  • 63
    Mizuno A, Amizuka N, Irie K, Murakami A, Fujise N, Kanno T, Sato Y, Nakagawa N, Yasuda H, Mochizuki S, Gomibuchi T, Yano K, Shima N, Washida N, Tsuda E, Morinaga T, Higashio K, Ozawa H 1998 Severe osteoporosis in mice lacking osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin. Biochem Biophys Res Com 247:610615.
  • 64
    Barengolts EI, Berman M, Kukreja SC, Kouznetsova T, Lin C, Chomka EV 1998 Osteoporosis and coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 62:209213.
  • 65
    Chenu C, Pfeilschifter J, Mundy GR, Roodman GD 1988 Transforming growth factor beta inhibits formation of osteoclast-like cells in long-term human marrow cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci 85:56835687.
  • 66
    Pfeilschifter J, Seyedin SM, Mundy GR 1988 Transforming growth factor beta inhibits bone resorption in fetal rat long bone cultures. J Clin Invest 82:680685.
  • 67
    Dinarello CA 1996 Biologic basis for interleukin-1 in disease. Blood 87:20952147.
  • 68
    Hing L, Carlson L, Siebenlist U, Boyce BF 1998 Mechanisms by which NF-κB regulates osteoclast numbers (abstract 1172). Bone 23(Suppl 1):S190.
  • 69
    O'Brien CA, Gubrij I, Lin SC, Saylors RL, Manolagas S 1999 STAT3 activation in stromal/osteoblastic cells is required for induction of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand and stimulation of osteoclastogenesis by gp130-utilizing cytokines or interleukin-1 but not 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or parathyroid hormone. J Biol Chem 274:1930119308.
  • 70
    Adebanjo OA, Moonga BS, Yamate T, Sun L, Minkin C, Abe E, Zaidi M 1998 Mode of action of interleukin-6 on mature osteoclasts. Novel interactions with extracellular Ca2+ sensing in the regulation of osteoclastic bone resorption. J Cell Biol 142:13471356.
  • 71
    Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ 1998 A unitary model for involutional osteoporosis: Estrogen deficiency causes both type I and type II osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and contributes to bone loss in aging men. J Bone Miner Res 13:763773.
  • 72
    Spelsberg TC, Subramaniam M, Riggs BL, Khosla S 1999 The actions and interactions of sex steroids and growth factors/cytokines on the skeleton. Mol Enocrinol 13:819828.
  • 73
    Parfitt AM, Mundy GR, Roodman GD, Hughes DE, Boyce BF 1996 A new model for the regulation of bone resorption, with particular reference to the effects of bisphosphonates. J Bone Miner Res 11:150159.
  • 74
    Kitazawa R, Kimble RB, Vannice J-L, Kung VT, Pacifici R 1994 Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor binding protein decrease osteoclast formation and bone resorption in ovariectomized mice. J Clin Invest 94:23972406.
  • 75
    Kimble RB, Bain S, Pacifici R 1997 The functional block of TNF but not of IL-6 prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice. J Bone Miner Res 12:935941.
  • 76
    Jilka RL, Hangoc G, Girasole G, Passeri G, Williams DC, Abrams JS, Boyce B, Broxmeyer H, Manolagas SC 1992 Increased osteoclast development after estrogen loss: mediation by interleukin-6. Science 257:8891.
  • 77
    Kimble RB, Srivastava S, Ross FP, Matayoshi A, Pacifici R 1996 Estrogen deficiency increases the ability of stromal cells to support murine osteoclastogenesis via an interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-mediated stimulation of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Biol Chem 271:2889028897.
  • 78
    Kawaguchi H, Pilbeam CC, Vargas SJ, Morse EE, Lorenzo JA, Raisz LG 1995 Ovariectomy enhances and estrogen replacement inhibits the activity of bone marrow factors that stimulate prostaglandin production in cultured mouse calvariae. J Clin Invest 96:539548.
  • 79
    Pacifici R, Vannice JL, Rifas L, Kimble RB 1989 Monocytic secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in normal and osteoporotic women: effects of menopause and estrogen/progesterone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77:11351141.
  • 80
    Oursler MJ, Pederson L, Fitzpatrick L, Riggs BL, Spelsberg T 1994 Human giant cell tumors of the bone (osteoclastomas) are estrogen target cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 91:52275231.
  • 81
    Hughes DE, Dai A, Tiffee JC, Li HH, Mundy GR 1997 Estrogen promotes apoptosis of murine osteoclasts mediated by TGF-beta. Nature Med 2:11321136.
  • 82
    Oursler MJ, Cortese C, Keeting PE, Anderson MA, Bonde SK, Riggs BL, Spelsberg TC 1991 Modulation of transforming growth factor-β production in normal human osteoblast-like cells by 17β-estradiol and parathyroid hormone. Endocrinology 129:33133320.
  • 83
    Robinson JA, Riggs BL, Spelsberg TC, Oursler MJ 1996 Osteoclasts and transforming growth factor-β: Estrogen-mediated isoform-specific regulation of production. Endocrinology 137:615621.
  • 84
    Yano K, Tsuda E, Washida N, Kobayashi F, Goto M, Harada A, Ikeda K, Higashio K, Yamada Y 1999 Immunological characterization of circulating osteoprotegerin/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor: Increased serum concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 14:518527.
  • 85
    Arrighi HM, Hsieh A, Wong V, Khoo H, Reyes A, Asbury D, Campbell P, Yanagihara D, Chang D, Bekker P, Dunstan CR 1998 Osteoprotegerin serum levels in healthy volunteers (abstract T411). Bone 23(Suppl 1):S298.
  • 86
    Lukert B, Raisz LG 1990 Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: pathogenesis and management. Ann Intern Med 112:352364.
  • 87
    Reid IR 1997 Glucocorticoid osteoporosis—Mechanisms and management. Eur J Endocrinol 137:209217.
  • 88
    Conaway HH, Grogorie D, Lerner UH 1996 Stimulation of neonatal mouse calvarial bone resorption by the glucocorticoids hydrocortisone and dexamethasone. J Bone Miner Res 11:14191429.
  • 89
    Kaji H, Sugimoto T, Kanatani M, Nishiyama K, Chihara K 1997 Dexamethasone stimulates osteoclast-like cell formation by directly acting on hemopoietic blast cells and enhances osteoclast-like cell formation stimulated by parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E2. J Bone Miner Res 12:734741.
  • 90
    Gronowicz G, McCarthy MB, Raisz LG 1990 Glucocorticoids stimulate resorption in fetal rat parietal bones in vitro. J Bone Miner Res 5:12231230.
  • 91
    Chiodini I, Carnevale V, Torlontano M, Fusilli S, Gugglielmi G, Pileri M, Modoni S, di Giorgio A, Liuzzi A, Minisola S, Cammisa M, Trischitta V, Scillitani A 1998 Alterations of bone turnover and bone mass at different skeletal sites due to pure glucocorticoid excess: study in eumenorrheic patients with Cushing's syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:18631867.
  • 92
    Riggs BL, Jowsey J, Kelly PJ 1966 Quantitative microradiographic study of bone remodeling in Cushing's syndrome. Metabolism 15:773780.
  • 93
    Dempster D 1989 Bone histomorphometry in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 4:137141.
  • 94
    Bornefalk E, Dahlen I, Johannsson G, Ljunggren O, Ohlsson C 1998 Serum levels of osteoprotegerin: Effects of glucocorticoids and growth hormone (abstract F321). Bone 23 (Suppl 1):S486.
  • 95
    Dunstan CR, Capparelli C, Kelley M, Shimamoto G, Kaufman S, Russell, Campagnuolo G, Starnes C, Wieman B, Lacey D 1997 Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a novel TNF-receptor family member, profoundly inhibits endosteal bone resorption due to growth, humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, and interleukin 1 (abstract 134). J Bone Miner Res 12 (Suppl 1):S136.
  • 96
    Akatsu T, Murakami T, Ono K, Nishikawa M, Tsuda E, Mochizuki S-I, Fujise N, Higashio K, Motoyoshi K, Yamamoto M, Nagata N 1998 Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor exhibits hypocalcemic effects in normal mice and in hypercalcemic nude mice carrying tumors associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Bone 23:495498.