Cubes of cancellous bone were obtained from proximal femora of women with hip fractures (n = 26) and from female cadaveric controls (n = 32) to compare architecture and mechanics between groups. Specimens were scanned on a microcomputed tomography system. Stereologic algorithms and model-based estimates were applied to the data to characterize the three-dimensional cancellous microstructure. Cubes were mechanically tested to failure to obtain mechanical properties. Specimens from control subjects had significantly higher bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and connectivity than specimens from patients with hip fractures; no difference in trabecular thickness was observed between groups. Both maximum modulus and ultimate stress were significantly higher in the control than in the fracture group, consistent with the higher bone volume found in the control group. No statistical differences in any of these architectural or mechanical variables were found when groups were matched for bone volume. Specimens from both patients with hip fractures and controls demonstrated strong relationships between trabecular number and bone volume fraction that were statistically equivalent, suggesting that for a given bone mass, both groups have the same overall number of trabeculae. However, there was an architectural difference between fracture and control groups in terms of the three-dimensional spatial arrangement of trabeculae. Fracture specimens had a significantly more anisotropic (oriented) structure than control specimens, with proportionately fewer trabecular elements transverse to the primary load axis, even when matched for bone volume. Relationships between mechanical and architectural parameters were significantly different between groups, suggesting that fracture and control groups have different structure-mechanics relationships, which we hypothesize may be a consequence of the altered three-dimensional structure between groups.