• 1
    Jones G, Nguyen T, Sambrook P, Kelly P, Gilbert C, Eisman J 1994 Symptomatic fracture incidence in elderly men and women: The Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). Osteoporos Int 4:277282.
  • 2
    O'Neill T, Felsenberg D, Varlow J, Cooper C, Kanis J, Silman A, The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group 1996 The prevalence of vertebral deformity in European men and women: The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 11:10101018.
  • 3
    Tsai K-S, Twu S-J, Chieng P-U, Yang R-S, Lee T-K 1996 Prevalence of vertebral deformities in Chinese men and women in urban Taiwanese communities. Calcif Tissue Int 59:249253.
  • 4
    Burger H, van Daele P, Grashuis K, Hafman A, Grobbee D, Schutte H, Birkenhager J, Pois H 1997 Vertebral deformities and functional impairment in men and women. J Bone Miner Res 12:152157.
  • 5
    Davies K, Stegman M, Heaney R, Recker R 1996 Prevalence and severity of vertebral fracture: The Saunders County Bone Quality Bone Study. Osteoporos Int 2:160165.
  • 6
    Cooper C, Campion G, Melton LJ III 1992 Hip fractures in the elderly: A world-wide projection. Osteoporos Int 2:285289.
  • 7
    Poór G, Atkinson E, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ III 1995 Determinants of reduced survival following hip fractures in men. Clin Orthop 319:260265.
  • 8
    Seeman E, Duan Y, Fong C, Edmonds J, De Luca V 2000 Fracture site-specific deficits in bone size and volumetric density in men with spine or hip fractures. (submitted).
  • 9
    Ristevski S, Yeung S, Poon C, Wark J, Ebeling P 1997 Osteopenia is common in young first-degree male relatives of men with osteoporosis. ANZBMS, Annual Scientific Meeting, Australia 7:65.
  • 10
    Tupman GS 1962 A study of bone growth in normal children and its relationship to skeletal maturation. J Bone Joint Surg 44B:4267.
  • 11
    Duval-Beaupere G, Combes J 1971 Segments superior et inferier au cours de la croissance physiologue des filles. Arch Franc Ped 28:10571071.
  • 12
    Bass S, Delmas P, Pearce G, Hendrich E, Tabensky A, Seeman E 1999 The differing tempo of growth in bone size, mass, and density in girls is region-specific. J Clin Invest 104:795804.
  • 13
    Seeman E, Karlsson M, Duan Y 2000 On exposure to anorexia nervosa, the temporal variation in axial and appendicular skeletal development predisposes to site-specific deficits in bone size and density: A cross-sectional study. J Bone Miner Res (in press)
  • 14
    Bass S, Bradney M, Pearce G, Hendrich E, Stuckey S, Seeman E 2000 Short stature and delayed puberty: Influence of selection bias on leg length and reduced energy intake on trunk length in gymnasts. J Pediatr 136:149155.
  • 15
    Mazess R 1983 Non-invasive Bone Measurements in Skeletal Research, vol. 9. Academic Press, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 277343.
  • 16
    Carter DR, Bouxsein ML, Marcus R 1992 New approaches for interpreting projected bone densitometry data. J Bone Miner Res 7:137145.
  • 17
    Tabensky A, Williams J, De Luca V, Brigante E, Seeman E 1996 Bone mass, areal and volumetric bone density are equally accurate, sensitive, and specific surrogates of the breaking strength of the vertebral body: An in vitro study. J Bone Miner Res 11:19811988.
  • 18
    Marubini E 1978 Mathematical handling of long-term longitudinal data. In: FalknerF, TannerJ (eds.) Human Growth: Principles and Prenatal Growth, 1st ed., vol. 1. Plenum Press, New York, NY, U.S.A., and London, U.K., pp. 209225.
  • 19
    Schibler D, Brooks C, Kind H, Zachmann M, Prader A 1974 Growth and body proportions in 54 boys and men with Klinefelters syndrome. Helevetica Paediatrica Acta 29:325333.
  • 20
    Seeman E 1997 From density to structure: Growing up and growing old on the surfaces of bone. J Bone Miner Res 12:509521.
  • 21
    Seeman E 1998 Growth in bone mass and size: Are racial and gender differences in bone density more apparent than real? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:16.
  • 22
    Smith EP, Boyd J, Frank GR, Takahashi H, Cohen R, Specker B, Williams T, Lubahn D, Korach K 1994 Estrogen resistance caused by a mutation in the estrogen-receptor gene in a man. N Engl J Med 331:10561061.
  • 23
    Vanderschueren D, Van Herck E, Nijs J, Ederveen A, de Coster R, Bouillon R 1997 Aromatase inhibition impairs skeletal modeling and decreases bone mineral density in growing male rats. Endocrinology 138:23012307.
  • 24
    Neely EK, Marcus R, Rosenfeld R, Bachrach L 1993 Turner Syndrome adolescents receiving growth hormone are not Osteopenic. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 76:861866.
  • 25
    Zhang X, Kalu D, Erbas B, Hopper J, Seeman E 1999 The effects of gonadectomy on bone size, mass, and volumetric density in growing rats are gender-, site-, and growth hormone-specific. J Bone Miner Res 14:802809.
  • 26
    Rosen HN, Chen V, Cittadini A, Greenspan SL, Douglas PS, Moses ACGBW, 1995 Treatment with growth hormone and IGF-1 in growing rats increases bone mineral content but not bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 10:13521358.
  • 27
    Lu PW, Cowell CT, Lloyd-Jones SA, Broidy J, Howman-Giles R 1996 Volumetric bone mineral density in normal subjects, aged 5–27 years. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:15861590.
  • 28
    Garn S 1970 The earlier gain and later loss of cortical bone. Nutritional Perspectives. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Spingfield, IL, U.S.A., pp. 3120.
  • 29
    Gilsanz V, Skaggs D, Kovanlikaya A, Sayre J, Loro M, Kaufman F, Korenman S 1998 Differential effect of race on the axial and appendicular skeletons of children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:14201427.
  • 30
    Glorieux FH, Travers R, Taylor A, Bowen JR, Rauch F, Norman M, Parfitt AM 2000 Normative data for iliac bone histomorphometry in growing children. Bone 26:103109.
  • 31
    Bass S, Pearce G, Bradney M, Hendrich E, Delmas PD, Harding A, Seeman E 1998 Exercise before puberty may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood: Studies in active prepubertal and retired female gymnasts. J Bone Miner Res 13:500507.