• 1
    Kelly PJ, Eisman JA, Sambrook PN 1990 Interaction of genetic and environmental influences on peak bone density. Osteoporos Int 1:5660.
  • 2
    Theintz G, Buchs B, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Clavien H, Sizonenko PC, Bonjour J-P 1992 Longitudinal monitoring of bone mass accumulation in healthy adolescents: Evidence for a marked reduction after 16 years of age at the level of lumbar spine and femoral neck in female subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:10601065.
  • 3
    Kroger H, Kotaniemi A, Kroger L, Alhava E 1993 Development of bone mass and bone density of the spine and femoral neck—a prospective study of 65 children and adolescents. Bone Miner 23:171182.
  • 4
    Willing M, Sowers M, Aron D, Clark MK, Burns T, Bunten C, Crutchfield M, D'Agostino D, Jannausch M 1998 Bone mineral density and its change in white women: Estrogen and vitamin D receptor genotypes and their interaction. J Bone Miner Res 13:695705.
  • 5
    Rubin LA, Hawker GA, Peltekova VD, Fielding LJ, Ridout R, Cole DE 1999 Determinants of peak bone mass: Clinical and genetic analyses in a young female Canadian cohort. J Bone Miner Res 14:633643.
  • 6
    Slemenda CW, Christian JC, Williams CJ, Norton JA, Johnston CC Jr 1991 Genetic determinants of bone mass in adult women: A reevaluation of the twin model and the potential importance of gene interaction on heritability estimates. J Bone Miner Res 6:5617.
  • 7
    Arden NK, Spector TD 1997 Genetic influences on muscle strength, lean body mass, and bone mineral density: A twin study. J Bone Miner Res 12:20762081.
  • 8
    Hopper JL, Green RM, Nowson CA, Young D, Sherwin AJ, Kaymakci B, Larkins RG, Wark JD 1998 Genetic, common environment, and individual specific components of variance for bone mineral density in 10- to 26-year-old females: A twin study. Am J Epidemiol 147:1729.
  • 9
    Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B 1993 Heritable and life-style determinants of bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 8:19.
  • 10
    Truscott JG 1997 Reference data for ultrasonic bone measurement: Variation with age in 2087 Caucasian women aged 16–93 years. Br J Radiol 70:10101016.
  • 11
    Tirafili C, Romagnoli E, Pellegrino C, Costa G, Ombricolo E, Marciano M, Caravella P, Rosso R, Minisola S, Mazzuoli GF 1997 Age- and menopause-related changes in speed of sound and ultrasound attenuation of the os calcis in a healthy Italian female population. Aging (Milano) 9:404407.
  • 12
    Arden NK, Baker J, Hogg C, Baan K, Spector TD 1996 The heritability of bone mineral density, ultrasound of the calcaneus and hip axis length: A study of postmenopausal twins. J Bone Miner Res 11:530534.
  • 13
    Howard GM, Nguyen TV, Harris M, Kelly PJ, Eisman JA 1998 Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between quantitative ultrasound and bone mineral density measurements: A twin study. J Bone Miner Res 13:13181327.
  • 14
    Danielson ME, Cauley JA, Baker CE, Newman AB, Dorman JS, Towers JD, Kuller LH 1999 Familial resemblance of bone mineral density (BMD) and calcaneal ultrasound attenuation: The BMD in mothers and daughters study. J Bone Miner Res 14:102110.
  • 15
    Porter RW, Miller CG, Grainger D, Palmer SB 1990 Prediction of hip fracture in elderly women: A prospective study. BMJ 301:638641.
  • 16
    Hans D, Dargent-Molina P, Schott AM, Sebert JL, Cormier C, Kotzki PO, Delmas PD, Pouilles JM, Breart G, Meunier PJ 1996 Ultrasonographic heel measurements to predict hip fracture in elderly women: The EPIDOS prospective study. Lancet 348:511514.
  • 17
    Bauer DC, Gluer CC, Cauley JA, Vogt TM, Ensrud KE, Genant HK, Black DM 1997 Broadband ultrasound attenuation predicts fractures strongly and independently of densitometry in older women. A prospective study. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Arch Intern Med 157:629634.
  • 18
    Tabensky AD, Williams J, DeLuca V, Briganti E, Seeman E 1996 Bone mass, areal, and volumetric bone density are equally accurate, sensitive, and specific surrogates of the breaking strength of the vertebral body: An in vitro study. J Bone Miner Res 11:19811988.
  • 19
    Gluer CC, Wu CY, Jergas M, Goldstein SA, Genant HK 1994 Three quantitative ultrasound parameters reflect bone structure. Calcif Tissue Int 55:4652.
  • 20
    Prins SH, Jorgensen HL, Jorgensen LV, Hassager C 1998 The role of quantitative ultrasound in the assessment of bone: A review. Clin Physiol 18:317.
  • 21
    Gregg EW, Kriska AM, Salamone LM, Roberts MM, Anderson SJ, Ferrell RE, Kuller LH, Cauley JA 1997 The epidemiology of quantitative ultrasound: A review of the relationships with bone mass, osteoporosis and fracture risk. Osteoporos Int 7:8999.
  • 22
    Civitelli R, Villareal DT, Armamento-Villareal R 1993 Estrogen status and bone mass in the premenopausal period: Is osteoporosis a developmental disease? J Endocrinol Invest 16:829839.
  • 23
    Takahashi Y, Maminamitani K, Kobayashi Y, Minagawa M, Yasuda T, Niimi H 1996 Spinal and femoral bone mass accumulation during normal adolescence. Comparison with female patients with sexual precocity and with hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:12481253.
  • 24
    Drinkwater BL, Nilson K, Chesnut CH III, Bremner WJ, Shainholtz S, Southworth MB 1984 Bone mineral content of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic athletes. N Engl J Med 311:277281.
  • 25
    Ongphiphadhanakul B, Rajatanavin R, Chanprasertyothin S, Piaseu N, Chailurkit L 1998 Estrogen receptor gene polymorphism is associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women but not in postmenopausal women. J Endocrinol Invest 21:487493.
  • 26
    Frank GR 1995 The role of estrogen in pubertal skeletal physiology: Epiphyseal maturation and mineralization of the skeleton. Acta Paediatr 84:627630.
  • 27
    Morishima A, Grumbach MM, Simpson ER, Fisher C, Qin K 1995 Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:36893698.
  • 28
    Smith EP, Boyd J, Frank GR, Takahashi H, Cohen RM, Specker B, Williams TC, Lubahn DB, Korach KS 1994 Estrogen resistance caused by a mutation in the estrogen-receptor gene in a man. N Engl J Med 331:10561061.
  • 29
    Anzick SL, Kononen J, Walker RL, Azorsa DO, Tanner MM, Guan XY, Sauter G, Kallioniemi OP, Trent JM, Meltzer PS 1997 AIB1, a steroid receptor coactivator amplified in breast and ovarian cancer. Science 277:965968.
  • 30
    Li H, Gomes PJ, Chen JD 1997 RAC3, a steroid/nuclear receptor-associated coactivator that is related to SRC-1 and TIF2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:84798484.
  • 31
    Kobayashi S, Inoue S, Hosoi T, Ouchi Y, Shiraki M, Orimo H 1996 Association of bone mineral density with polymorphism of the estrogen receptor gene. J Bone Miner Res 11:306311.
  • 32
    Deng HW, Li J, Li JL, Johnson M, Gong G, Davis KM, Recker RR 1998 Change of bone mass in postmenopausal Caucasian women with and without hormone replacement therapy is associated with vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotypes. Hum Genet 103:576585.
  • 33
    Shirazi SK, Bober MA, Coetzee GA 1998 Polymorphic exonic CAG microsatellites in the gene amplified in breast cancer (AIB1 gene). Clin Genet 54:102103.
  • 34
    Hawker GA, Rubin LA, Ridout R, Chase C, Spevack E 1997 Comparison of determinants of peak heel stiffness vs. peak bone density in young, caucasian women. Arthritis Rheum 40(Suppl 9):S40.
  • 35
    Torchia J, Glass C, Rosenfeld MG 1998 Co-activators and co-repressors in the integration of transcriptional responses. Curr Opin Cell Biol 10:373383.
  • 36
    Eng FC, Barsalou A, Akutsu N, Mercier I, Zechel C, Mader S, White JH 1998 Different classes of coactivators recognize distinct but overlapping binding sites on the estrogen receptor ligand binding domain. J Biol Chem 273:2837128377.
  • 37
    Bautista S, Valles H, Walker RL, Anzick S, Zeillinger R, Meltzer P, Theillet C 1998 In breast cancer, amplification of the steroid receptor coactivator gene AIB1 is correlated with estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. Clin Cancer Res 4:29252929.
  • 38
    Rebbeck TR, Kantoff PW, Krithivas K, Neuhausen SL, Blackwood MA, Godwin AK, Daly MB, Narod SA, Garber JE, Lynch HT, Weber BL, Brown MA 1999 Modification of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers by the AIB1 gene. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 40:194.
  • 39
    Rieder MJ, Taylor SL, Clark AG, Nickerson DA 1999 Sequence variation in the human angiotensin converting enzyme. Nat Genet 22:5962.
  • 40
    Ishikawa K, Tanaka H, Saito M, Ohkoshi N, Fujita T, Yoshizawa K, Ikeuchi T, Watanabe M, Hayashi A, Takiyama Y, Nishizawa M, Nakano I, Matsubayashi K, Miwa M, Shoji S, Kanazawa I, Tsuji S, Mizusawa H 1997 Japanese families with autosomal dominant pure cerebellar ataxia map to chromosome 19p13.1-p13.2 and are strongly associated with mild CAG expansions in the spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 gene in chromosome 19p13.1. Am J Hum Genet 61:336346.
  • 41
    Chakravarti A 1999 Population genetics—making sense out of sequence. Nat Genet 21:5660.
  • 42
    Econs MJ, Speer MC 1996 Genetic studies of complex diseases: Let the reader beware. J Bone Miner Res 11:18351840.
  • 43
    Gennari L, Becherini L, Masi L, Mansani R, Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Martini S, Montagnani A, Lentini G, Becorpi AM, Brandi ML 1998 Vitamin D and estrogen receptor allelic variants in Italian postmenopausal women: Evidence of multiple gene contribution to bone mineral density. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:93944.
  • 44
    Takeyama K, Masuhiro Y, Fuse H, Endoh H, Murayama A, Kitanaka S, Suzawa M, Yanagisawa J, Kato S 1999 Selective interaction of vitamin D receptor with transcriptional coactivators by a vitamin D analog. Mol Cell Biol 19:10491055.