• 1
    Johnell O, Gullberg B, Allander E, Kanis JA, MEDOS Study Group 1992 The apparent incidence of hip fracture in Europe: A study of national register source. Osteoporos Int 2:298302.
  • 2
    Kanis JA 1993 The incidence of hip fracture in Europe. Osteoporos Int 3(Suppl 1):S10S15.
  • 3
    Lau EMC, Cooper C 1993 Epidemiology and prevention of osteoporosis in urbanized Asian populations. Osteoporos Int 3(Suppl 1):S23S26.
  • 4
    Kühnau J 1976 The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: Their role in human nutrition. World Rev Nutr Diet 24:117191.
  • 5
    Setchell KDR 1998 Phytoestrogens: The biochemistry, physiology, and implications for human health of soy isoflavones. Am J Clin Nutr 68(Suppl):1333S1346S.
  • 6
    Arjmandi BH, Alekeel L, Hollis BW, Amin D, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Guo P, Kukreja SC 1996 Dietary soybean prevents bone loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. J Nutr 126:161167.
  • 7
    Arjmandi BH, Birnbaum R, Goyal NV, Getlinger MJ, Juma S, Alekeel L, Hasler CM, Drum ML, Hollis BW, Kukreja SC 1998 Bone-sparing effect of soy protein in ovarian hormone-deficient rats is related to its isoflavone content. Am J Clin Nutr 68(Suppl):1364S1368S.
  • 8
    Arjmandi BH, Getlinger MJ, Goyal NV, Hasler CM, Juma S, Drum ML, Hollis BW, Kukreja SC 1998 Role of soy protein with normal or reduced isoflavone content in reversing bone loss induced by ovarian deficiency in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 68(Suppl):1858S1363S.
  • 9
    Draper CR, Edel MJ, Dick IM, Randall AG, Martin GB, Prince RL 1997 Phytoestrogens reduce bone loss and bone resorption in oophorectomized rats. J Nutr 127:17951799.
  • 10
    Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, Stillman RJ, Shays NF, Erdman JW 1998 Soy protein and isoflavones: Their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 68(Suppl):1375S1379S.
  • 11
    Anderson JJB, Anthony W, Messina M, Garner SC 1999 Effects of phyto-estrogens on tissues. Nutr Res Rev 12:75116.
  • 12
    Mühlbauer RC, Li F 1999 Effects of vegetables on bone metabolism. Nature 401:343344.
  • 13
    Ingold P, Kneissel M, Mühlbauer RC, Gasser JA 1998 Extracts from onion prevent tibial cortical and cancellous bone loss induced by a high phosphate/low protein diet in aged retired breeder rats. Bone 23(Suppl):S387.
  • 14
    Justesen U, Knuthsen P, Leth T 1998 Quantitative analysis of flavonols, flavones and flavanones in fruits, vegetables and beverages by high performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array and mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A 799:101110.
  • 15
    Price KR, Rhodes MJC 1997 Analysis of the major flavonol glycosides present in four varieties of onion (Alium cepa) and changes in composition resulting from autolysis. J Sci Food Agric 74:331339.
  • 16
    Kalu DN 1991 The ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Bone Miner 15:175191.
  • 17
    Booth AN, Murray CW, Jones FT, Deeds F 1956 The metabolic fate of rutin and quercetin in the animal body. J Biol Chem 233:251257.
  • 18
    Pastoureau P, Chomel A, Bonnet J 1995 Specific evaluation of localized bone mass and bone loss in the rat using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporos Int 5:143149.
  • 19
    Turner CH, Burr DB 1993 Basic biochemical measurements of bone: A tutorial. Bone 14:545608.
  • 20
    Seyedin SM, Kung VT, Daniloff YN, Helsey RP, Gomez B, Neilsen LA, Rosen HN, Zuk RF 1993 Immunoassay for urinary pyridinoline: The new marker for bone resorption. J Bone Miner Res 5:635645.
  • 21
    Robins SP 1994 Biochemical markers for assessing skeletal growth. Eur J Clin Nutr 48(Suppl 1):S199S209.
  • 22
    Bertin E, Ruiz JC, Mourot J, Peiniau P, Portha B 1998 Evaluation of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for body-composition assessment in rats. J Nutr 128:15501554.
  • 23
    Crespy V, Morand C, Manach C, Besson C, Demigné C, Rémésy C 1999 Part of quercetin absorbed in the small intestine is conjugated and further secreted in the intestinal lumen. Am J Physiol 277:G120G126.
  • 24
    Bennetts H, Underwood EJ, Shier FL 1946 A specific breeding problem of sheep on subterranean clover pastures in Western Australia. Aust Vet J 22:211.
  • 25
    Mühlbauer RC, Li F, Guenther HL 1998 Common vegetables consumed by humans potently modulate bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Bone 23(Suppl):S388.
  • 26
    Price KR, Rhodes MJC 1997 Analysis of the major flavonol glycosides present in four varieties of onion (Alium cepa) and changes in composition resulting from autolysis. J Sci Food Agric 74:331339.
  • 27
    Williams CA, Harborne JB 1993 Flavone and flavonol glycosides. In: HarborneJ B (ed.) The Flavonoids: Advances in Research Since 1986. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K., pp. 337370.
  • 28
    Morand C, Crespy J, Manach C, Besson C, Demigné C, Rémésy C 1998 Plasma metabolites of quercetin and their antioxidant properties. Am J Physiol 275:R212R219.
  • 29
    Manach C, Morand C, Texier O, Favier ML, Agullo G, Demigné C, Régérat C, Rémésy C 1995 Quercetin metabolites in plasma of rats fed diets containing rutin or quercetin. J Nutr 125:19111922.
  • 30
    Wronski TJ, Yen CF 1991 The ovariectomized rat as an animal model for postmenopausal bone loss. Cells Mater 1(Suppl):6974.
  • 31
    Uchiyama T, Tanizawa T, Muramatsu H, Endo N, Takahaschi HE, Hara T 1999 Three-dimensional microstructural analysis of human trabecular bone in relation to mechanical properties. Bone 25:487491.
  • 32
    Kleerekoper M, Villanueva AR, Stanciu J, Sudhaker RD, Parfitt AM 1995 The role of three-dimensional trabecular microstructure in the pathogenesis of vertebral compression fractures. Calcif Tissue Int 37(Suppl):S594S597.
  • 33
    Recker RR 1989 Low bone mass may not be the only cause of skeletal fragility in osteoporosis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 191:272274.
  • 34
    Garnero P, Delmas PD 1999 Utilité clinique des marqueurs de remodelage osseux dans l'ostéoporose. In: MeunierPJ (ed.) Ostéoporose: Progrés dans le Diagnostic et la Prise en Charge. Martin Dunitz, London, U.K., pp. 79101.
  • 35
    Ismail F, Epstein S, Fallon MD, Thomas SB, Reinhardt TA 1988 Serum bone Gla protein and the vitamin D endocrine system in the oophorectomized rat. Endocrinology 122:624630.
  • 36
    Horcajada-Molteni M-N, Davicco M-J, Collignon H, Lebesque P, Coxam V, Barlet J-P 1999 Does endurance running before orchidectomy prevent osteopenia in rats? Eur J Appl Physiol 80:344352.
  • 37
    Anderson JJB, Ambrose WW, Garner SC 1998 Biphasic effects of genistein on bone tissue in the ovariectomized lactating rat model. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 217:345350.
  • 38
    Messina MJ 1999 Legumes and soybeans: Overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. Am J Clin Nutr 70(Suppl):439S450S.
  • 39
    Manach C, Morand C, Crespy V, Demigné C, Texier O, Régérar F, Rémésy C 1998 Quercetin is recovered in human plasma as conjugated derivatives which retain antioxidant properties. FEBS Lett 426:331336.
  • 40
    Matsumoto H, Silverton SF, Debolt K, Shapiro M 1997 Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the growth of cartilage: Relationship between oxidoreductase activity and chondrocyte maturation. J Bone Miner Res 6:569574.
  • 41
    Caltagirone S, Ranelletti FO, Rinelli A, Maggiano N, Colasante A, Musiani P, Aiello FB, Piantelli M 1997 Interaction with type II estrogen-binding sites and antiproliferative activity of tamoxifen and quercetin in human non-small cell lung cancer. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 17:5159.
  • 42
    Kuiper GG, Lemmen JG, Carlsson B, Corton JC, Safe SH, Van Der Saag PT, Van Der Burg B, Gustafsson JA 1998 Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology 139:42524263.
  • 43
    Vidal O, Kindbom LG, Ohlsson C 1999 Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-β in murine and human bone. J Bone Miner Res 14:923929.
  • 44
    Windahl SH, Norgard M, Kuiper GGJM, Gustaffson JA, Andersson G 2000 Cellular distribution of estrogen receptor β in neonatal rat bone. Bone 26:117121.
  • 45
    Ferrandina G, Almadori G, Maggiano M, Lanza P, Ferlini C, Cattani P, Piantelli M, Scambia G, Ranelletti FO 1998 Growth-inhibitory effect of tamoxifen and quercetin and presence of type II estrogen binding sites in human laryngeal cancer cell lines and primary laryngeal tumors. Int J Cancer 77:747754.
  • 46
    Miodini P, Fioravanti L, Di Fronzo G, Capelleti V 1999 The two phyto-estrogens genistein and quercetin exert different effects on estrogen receptor function. Br J Cancer 80:11501155.