• 1
    Ramnemark A, Nyberg L, Borssén B, Olsson T, Gustafson Y 1998 Fractures after stroke. Osteoporos Int 8:9295.
  • 2
    Chiu KY, Pun WK, Luk KDK, Chow SP 1992 A prospective study on hip fractures in patients with previous cerebrovascular accidents. Injury 23:297299.
  • 3
    Hooper G 1979 Internal fixation of fractures of the neck of the femur in hemiplegic patients. Injury 10:281284.
  • 4
    Poplingher AR, Pillar T 1985 Hip fracture in stroke patients. Acta Orthop Scand 56:226227.
  • 5
    Sato Y, Maruoka H, Honda Y, Asoh T, Fujimatsu Y, Oizumi K 1996 Development osteopenia in the hemiplegic finger in patients with stroke. Eur Neurol 36:278283.
  • 6
    Sato Y, Maruoka H, Oizumi K, Kikuyama M 1996 Vitamin D deficiency and osteopenia in the hemiplegic limbs of stroke patients. Stroke 27:21832187.
  • 7
    Sato Y, Fujimatsu Y, Kikuyama M, Kaji M, Oizumi K 1998 Influence of immobilization on bone mass and bone metabolism in hemiplegic elderly patients with a long-standing stroke. J Neurol Sci 156:205210.
  • 8
    Sato Y, Oizumi K, Kuno H, Kaji M 1999 Effect of immobilization upon renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in disabled elderly stroke patients. Bone 24:271275.
  • 9
    Eriksen EF, Charles P, Melsen F, Mosekilde L, Risteli L, Risteli J 1993 Serum markers of type I collagen formation and degradation in metabolic bone disease: Correlation with bone histomorphometry. J Bone Miner Res 8:127132.
  • 10
    Sato Y, Kuno H, Kaji M, Ohshima Y, Asoh T, Oizumi K 1998 Increased bone resorption during the first year following a stroke. Stroke 29:13731377.
  • 11
    Sato Y, Maruoka H, Oizumi K 1997 Amelioration of hemiplegia-associated osteopenia over 4 years following stroke by 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcium supplementation. Stroke 28:736739.
  • 12
    Sato Y, Honda Y, Kuno H, Oizumi K 1998 Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients. Bone 23:291296.
  • 13
    Sato Y, Kuno H, Kaji M, Saruwatari N, Oizumi K 1999 Effect of ipriflavone on bone in elderly hemiplegic stroke patients with hypovitaminosis D. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 78:457463.
  • 14
    Fleish H 1981 Bisphosphonate: History and mechanism of action. Metab Bone Dis Relate Res 3:279287.
  • 15
    Strom T, Thamsborg G, Steiniche T, Genant HK, Sørensen OH 1990 Effect of intermittent cyclical etidronate therapy on bone mass and fracture rate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 322:12651271.
  • 16
    Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Brown J, Hanley D, Hodsman A, Josse R, Kendler DL, Lentle B, Olszynski W, Ste-Marie LG, Tenenhouse A, Chines AA 1997 Intermittent cyclical etidronate therapy to prevent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 337:382387.
  • 17
    Mahoney FI, Barthel DW 1965 Functional evaluation: The Barthel index. Md St Med J 14:6165.
  • 18
    Scandinavian Stroke Study Group 1985 Multicenter trial of hemodilution in ischemic stroke—background and study protocol. Stroke 16:885890.
  • 19
    Matsumoto C, Kushida K, Yamazaki K, Imose K, Inoue T 1994 Metacarpal bone mass in normal and osteoporotic Japanese women using computed X-ray densitometry. Calcif Tissue Int 55:324329.
  • 20
    Sato Y, Asoh T, Oizumi K 1998 High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mass in elderly women with Alzheimer's disease. Bone 23:555557.
  • 21
    Orimo H, Inoue T, Fujita T, Itami V 1982 Clinical experience with 1 α-OH-D3 in senile osteoporosis. In: NormanAW, SchaeferK, HerrathDV, GrigoleitHG (eds.) Vitamin D, Chemical, Biochemical and Clinical Endocrinology of Calcium Metabolism. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, pp. 12391243.
  • 22
    Orimo H, Fujita T, Onomura T, Inoue T, Kushida K, Shiraki M 1992 Clinical effect of menatetrenone in patients with senile and postmenopausal osteoporosis [in Japanese]. Shinyaku To Rinsyho 41:12491279.
  • 23
    Komar L, Nieves J, Cosman F, Rubin A, Shen V, Lindsay R 1993 Calcium homeostasis of an elderly population upon admission to a nursing home. J Am Geriatr Soc 41:10571064.
  • 24
    Seo GS, Shiraki M, Aoki C, Chen JT, Aoki J, Imose K, Tagawa Y, Inoue T 1994 Assessment of bone density in the radius with computer assisted X-ray densitometry (CXD). Bone Miner 27:173182.
  • 25
    Ross P, Huang C, Davis J, Imose K, Yates J, Vogel J, Wasnich R 1995 Predicting vertebral deformity using bone densitometry at various skeletal sites and calcaneus ultrasound. Bone 16:325332.
  • 26
    Ramnemark A, Nyberg L, Lorentzon R, Olsson T, Gustafson Y 1999 Hemiosteoporosis after severe stroke, independent of changes in body composition and weight. Stroke 30:755760.
  • 27
    Stewart AF, Adler M, Byers CM, Segre GV, Broadus AE 1982 Calcium homeostasis in immobilization: An example of resorptive hypercalciuria. N Engl J Med 306:11361140.
  • 28
    Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thandhani RI, Shaw AC, Deraska DJ, Kitch BT, Vamvakas EC, Dick IM, Prince RL, Finkelstein JS 1998 Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. N Engl J Med 338:777783.
  • 29
    Sato Y, Kuno H, Kaji M, Etoh K, Oizumi K 2000 Influence of immobilization upon calcium metabolism in the week following hemiplegic stroke. J Neurol Sci 175:135139.
  • 30
    Holick MF 1990 The use and interpretation of assays for vitamin D and its metabolites. J Nutr 120:S1464S1469.
  • 31
    Sato Y, Kaji M, Tsuru T, Oizumi K 1999 Carpal tunnel syndrome involving unaffected limbs of stroke patients. Stroke 30:414418.
  • 32
    Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE 1997 Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337:670676.
  • 33
    Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ 1992 Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in elderly women. N Engl J Med 327:16371642.