The sequence reported in this article has been deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank data base (accession no. AB021290).
Genomic Organization of the Human Chondromodulin-1 Gene Containing a Promoter Region That Confers the Expression of Reporter Gene in Chondrogenic ATDC5 Cells†
Article first published online: 18 FEB 2010
Copyright © 2000 ASBMR
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 421–429, March 2000
How to Cite
Yanagihara, I., Yamagata, M., Sakai, N., Shukunami, C., Kurahashi, H., Yamazaki, M., Michigami, T., Hiraki, Y. and Ozono, K. (2000), Genomic Organization of the Human Chondromodulin-1 Gene Containing a Promoter Region That Confers the Expression of Reporter Gene in Chondrogenic ATDC5 Cells. J Bone Miner Res, 15: 421–429. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.3.421
- Issue published online: 18 FEB 2010
- Article first published online: 18 FEB 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 SEP 1999
- Manuscript Revised: 9 AUG 1999
- Manuscript Received: 2 APR 1999
- gene structure;
- gene expression;
Chondromodulin-1 (ChM-1) is a cartilage-specific glycoprotein that stimulates the growth of chondrocytes and inhibits the tube formation of endothelial cells. To clarify the tissue-specific expression and the role of ChM-1 in pathophysiological conditions, we analyzed the structure of the human ChM-1 gene and its promoter. On the screening of a human genomic cosmid library using the human ChM-1 complimentary DNA (cDNA) as a probe, two clones were obtained that contained ChM-1 cDNA. The restriction enzyme map and nucleotide sequence revealed the human ChM-1 gene consisting of seven exons and exon-intron boundaries. The human ChM-1 gene was assigned to chromosome 13q14–21 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the clone as a probe. A primer extension analysis using total RNA extracted from human cartilage revealed a major transcription start site with the sequence CGCT+1GG. The region approximately 3-kilobase (kb) nucleotides upstream of the translation start site was then sequenced and analyzed in terms of promoter activity. We found that a region 446 base pairs (bp) upstream of the start site had promoter activity in COS7, HeLa, and ATDC5 cells. In structure the promoter is a TATA-less type without a GC-rich region. The transcription factors Sox9, Og12, and Cart-1 did not affect the promoter activity. The transcription factor Ying-Yang1 suppressed the promoter activity but GABP protein did not change the promoter activity. The construct containing −446/+87 fused to the SV40 enhancer and green fluorescent protein (GFP) exhibited expression of GFP corresponding to the differentiation of ATDC5 cells to mature chondrocytes. These results suggest that the element −446/+87 confers the cartilage-specific expression of this gene by some factor(s) other than Sox9, Og12, and Cart-1.