• 1
    Hiraki Y, Tanaka H, Inoue H, Kondo J, Kamizono A, Suzuki F 1991 Molecular cloning of a new class of cartilage-specific matrix, chondromodulin-I, which stimulates growth of cultured chondrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 175: 971977.
  • 2
    Mori Y, Hiraki Y, Shukunami C, Kakudo S, Shiokawa M, Kagoshima M, Mano H, Hakeda Y, Kurokawa T, Suzuki F, Kumegawa M 1997 Stimulation of osteoblast proliferation by the cartilage-derived growth promoting factors chondromodulin-I and -II. FEBS Lett 406: 310314.
  • 3
    Hiraki Y, Inoue H, Iyama K, Kamizono A, Ochiai M, Shukunami C, Iijima S, Suzuki F, Kondo J 1997 Identification of chondromodulin I as a novel endothelial cell growth inhibitor. J Biol Chem 272: 3241932426.
  • 4
    Inoue H, Kondo J, Koike T, Shukunami C, Hiraki Y 1997 Identification of an autocrine chondrocyte colony-stimulating factor: Chondromodulin-I stimulates the colony formation of growth plate chondrocytes in agarose culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 241: 395400.
  • 5
    Shukunami C, Iyama K, Inoue H, Hiraki Y 1999 Spatiotemporal pattern of the mouse chondromodulin-I gene expression and its regulatory role in vascular invasion into cartilage during endochondral bone formation. Int J Dev Biol 43: 3949.
  • 6
    Krebsbach PH, Nakata K, Bernier SM, Hatano O, Miyashita T, Rhodes CS, Yamada Y 1996 Identification of a minimum enhancer sequence for the type II collagen gene reveals several core sequence motifs in common with the link protein gene. J Biol Chem 271: 42984303.
  • 7
    Lefebvre V, Zhou G, Mukhopadhyay K, Smith CN, Zhang Z, Eberspaecher H, Zhou X, Sinha S, Maity SN, de Crombrugghe B 1996 An 18-base-pair sequence in the mouse proα1(II) collagen gene is sufficient for expression in cartilage and binds nuclear proteins that are selectively expressed in chondrocytes. Mol Cell Biol 16: 45124523.
  • 8
    Zhou G, Lefebvre V, Zhang Z, Eberspaecher H, de Crombrugghe B 1998 Three high mobility group-like sequences within a 48-base pair enhancer of the Col2a1 gene are required for cartilage-specific expression in vivo. J Biol Chem 273: 1498914997.
  • 9
    Bridgewater LC, Lefebvre V, de Crombrugghe B 1998 Chondrocyte-specific enhancer elements in the Col11a2 gene resemble the Col2a1 tissue-specific enhancer. J Biol Chem 273: 1499815006.
  • 10
    Tsumaki N, Kimura T, Matsui Y, Nakata K, Ochi T 1996 Separable cis-regulatory elements that contribute to tissue- and site-specific α2(XI) collagen gene expression in the embryonic mouse cartilage. J Cell Biol 134: 15731582.
  • 11
    Long F, Sonenshein GE, Linsenmayer TF 1998 Multiple transcriptional elements in the avian type X collagen gene. J Biol Chem 273: 65426549.
  • 12
    Pirok III EW, Li H, Mensch Jr. JR, Henry J, Schwartz NB 1997 Structual and functional analysis of the chick chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (Aggrecan) promoter and enhancer region. J Biol Chem 272: 1156611574.
  • 13
    Valhmu WB, Palmer GD, Dobson J, Fischer SG, Ratcliffe A 1998 Regulatory activities of the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions and promoter of the human aggrecan gene. J Biol Chem 273: 61966202.
  • 14
    Südbeck P, Schmitz ML, Baeuerle PA, Scherer G 1996 Sex reversal by loss of the C-terminal transactivation domain of human SOX9. Nat Genet 13: 230232.
  • 15
    Wagner T, Wirth J, Meyer J, Zabel B, Held M, Zimmer J, Pasantes J, Bricarelli FD, Keutel J, Hustert E, Wolf U, Tommerup N, Schempp W, Scherer G 1994 Autosomal sex reversal and campomelic dysplasia are caused by mutations in and around the SRY-related gene SOX9. Cell 79: 11111120.
  • 16
    Horton W, Miyashita T, Kohno K, Hassell JR, Yamada Y 1987 Identification of a phenotype-specific enhancer in the first intron of the rat collagen II gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84: 88648868.
  • 17
    Savagner P, Miyashita T, Yamada Y 1990 Two silencers regulate the tissue-specific expression of the collagen II gene. J Biol Chem 265: 66696674.
  • 18
    Kiss I, Bösze Z, Szabó P, Altanchimeg R, Barta E, Deak F 1990 Identification of positive and negative regulatory regions controlling expression of the cartilage matrix protein gene. Mol Cell Biol 10: 24322436.
  • 19
    Lu Valle P, Iwamoto M, Fanning P, Pacifici M, Olsen BR 1993 Multiple negative elements in a gene that codes for an extracellular matrix protein, collagen X, restrict expression to hypertrophic chondrocytes. J Cell Biol 121: 11731179.
  • 20
    Shukunami C, Ishizeki K, Atsumi T, Ohta Y, Suzuki F, Hiraki Y 1997 Cellular hypertrophy and calcification of embryonal carcinoma-derived chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 in vitro. J Bone Miner Res 12: 11741188.
  • 21
    Shukunami C, Shigeno C, Atsumi T, Ishizeki K, Suzuki F, Hiraki Y 1996 Chondrogenic differentiation of clonal mouse embryonic cell line ATDC5 in vitro: Differentiation-dependent gene expression of parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor. J Cell Biol 133: 457468.
  • 22
    Shukunami C, Ohta Y, Sakuda M, Hiraki Y 1998 Sequential progression of the differentiation program by bone morphogenetic protein-2 in chondrogenic cell line ATDC5. Exp Cell Res 241: 111.
  • 23
    Yu M, Yang X-Y, Schmidt T, Chinenov Y, Wang R, Martin ME 1997 GA-binding protein-dependent transcription initiator elements. Effect of helical spacing between polyomavirus enhancer a factor 3 (PEA3)/Ets-binding sites on initiator activity. J Biol Chem 272: 2906029067.
  • 24
    Wieczorek E, Brand M, Jacq X, Tora L 1998 Function of TAFII-containing complex without TBP in transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nature 393: 187191.
  • 25
    Usheva A, Shenk T 1994 TATA-binding protein-independent initiation: YY1, TFIIB, and RNA polymerase II direct basal transcription on supercoiled template DNA. Cell 76: 11151121.
  • 26
    Yu M, Yang X-Y, Schmidt T, Chinenov Y, Wang R, Martin ME 1997 GA-binding protein-dependent transcription initiator elements. J Biol Chem 272: 2906029067.
  • 27
    LaMarco K, Thompson CC, Byers BP, Walton EM, McKnight SL 1991 Identification of Ets- and Notch-related subunits in GA binding protein. Science 253: 789792.
  • 28
    Kurahashi H, Akagi K, Inazawa J, Ohta T, Niikawa N, Kayatani F, Sano T, Okada S, Nishisho I 1995 Isolation and characterization of a novel gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 4: 541549.
  • 29
    Rovescalli AC, Asoh S, Nirenberg M 1996 Cloning and characterizaion of four murine homeobox genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 1069110696.
  • 30
    Zhao G-Q, Zhou X, Eberspaecher H, Solursh M, de Crombrugghe B 1993 Cartilage homeoprotein 1, a homeoprotein selectively expressed in chondrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90: 86338637.
  • 31
    Ogawa H, Inouye S, Tsuji FI, Yasuda K, Umesono K 1995 Localization, trafficking, and temperature-dependence of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein in cultured vertebrate cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92: 1189911903.
  • 32
    Javahery R, Khachi A, Lo K, Zenzie-Gregory B, Smale ST 1994 DNA sequence requirements for transcriptional initiator activity in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol 12: 116127.
  • 33
    Brakebusch C, Jallal B, Fusco O, Iacobelli S, Ullrich A 1997 Expression of the 90K immunostimulator gene is controlled by a promoter with unique features. J Biol Chem 272: 36743682.
  • 34
    Kollmar R, Sukow KA, Sponagle SK, Farnham PJ 1994 Start site selection at the TATA-less carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing)/aspartate carbamoyltransferase/dihydroorotase promoter. J Biol Chem 269: 22522257.
  • 35
    Smale ST 1997 Transcription initiation from TATA-less promoters within eukaryotic protein-coding genes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1351: 7388.
  • 36
    Hyde-DeRuyscher RP, Jennings E, Shenk T 1995 DNA binding sites for the transcriptional activator/repressor YY1. Nucleic Acids Res 23: 44574465.
  • 37
    Belin V, Cusin V, Viot G, Girlich D, Toutain A, Moncla A, Velemans M, Le Merrer M, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V 1998 SHOX mutations in dyschondrosteosis (Leri-Weill syndrome). Nat Genet 19: 6769.
  • 38
    Shears DJ, Vassal HJ, Goodman FR, Palmer RW, Reardon W, Superti-Furga A, Scambler PJ, Winter RM 1998 Mutation and deletion of the pseudoautosomal gene SHOX cause Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Nat Genet 19: 7073.
  • 39
    Blaschke RJ, Monaghan AP, Schiller S, Schechinger B, Rao E, Padilla-Nash H, Ried T, Rappold GA 1998 SHOT, a SHOX-related homeobox gene, is implicated in craniofacial, brain, heart, and limb development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 24062411.
  • 40
    Christianson AM, King DL, Hatzivassiliou E, Casas JE, Hallenbeck PL, Nikodem VM, Mitsialis SA, Kafatos FC 1992 DNA binding and heteromerization of the Drosophila transcription factor chorion factor 1/ultraspiracle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89: 1150311507.