Direct Measurement of Hormone-Induced Acidification in Intact Bone

Authors

  • Glenn S. Belinsky,

    1. Department of Cancer Cell Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, and the Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
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  • Armen H. Tashjian Jr.

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Cancer Cell Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, and the Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
    • Department of Cancer Cell Biology Harvard School of Public Health 665 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02115 U.S.A.
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Abstract

Previous findings have shown that osteoblasts respond to parathyroid hormone (PTH) with an increase in extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in addition to the known effect of PTH to increase local acidification by osteoclasts. We, therefore, investigated use of the Cytosensor to measure the ECAR response of whole intact bone to PTH employing microphysiometry. The Cytosensor measures a generic metabolic increase of cells to various agents. Using neonatal mouse calvaria, we found that the area surrounding the sagittal suture was particularly responsive to PTH. In this bone, the increase in ECAR was slower to develop (6 minutes) and more persistent than in cultured human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells and was preceded by a brief decrease in ECAR Salmon calcitonin also produced an increase in ECAR in this tissue but with a different pattern than that elicited by PTH. Because PTH stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption in mouse calvaria via a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated mechanism, we showed that the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin also stimulated ECAR in this tissue. When the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway was activated by maintaining a high intracellular concentration of cAMP using N6-2′-0-dibutyryladenosine-cAMP (db-cAMP), there was a reduction of PTH-induced acidification, while isobutylmethylxanthine pretreatment potentiated the PTH-induced acidification, consistent with a PKA-mediated pathway. Thapsigargin and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on the PTH-induced increase in ECAR in calvaria, indicating that PKC does not play a major role in the ECAR response in intact bone. These results indicate the utility of using microphysiometry to study ECAR responses in intact tissue and should enable elucidation of the relative importance of extracellular acidification by osteoblasts and osteoclasts to the anabolic and catabolic activities of PTH, respectively.

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