• 1
    Liberman UA, Weiss SR, Broll J, Minne HW, Quan H, Bell NH, Rodriguez-Portales J, Downs RW, Dequeker J, Favus M, Seeman E, Recker RR, Capizzi T, Santora AC, Lombardi A, Shah RV, Hirsch LJ, Karpf DB 1995 Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 333: 14371443.
  • 2
    McClung M, Clemmesen B, Daifotis A, Gilchrist N, Eisman J, Weinstein RS, Fuleihan GEH, Reda C, Yates AJ, Ravn P 1998 Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. Ann Intern Med 128: 253261.
  • 3
    Bone HG, Downs RW, Tucci JR, Harris ST, Weinstein RS, Licata AA, Kimmel DB, Gertz BJ, Hale E, Polvino WJ 1997 Dose-Response Relationships for Alendronate Treatment in Osteoporotic Elderly Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 265274.
  • 4
    Saag KG, Emkey R, Schnitzer TJ, Brown JP, Hawkins F, Goemaere S, Thamsborg G, Liberman UA, Delmas PD, Malice MP, Czachur M, Daifotis AG 1998 Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 339: 292299.
  • 5
    Flora L, Hassing GS, Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR 1980 Comparative skeletal effects of two diphosphonates in dogs. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 2S: 389407.
  • 6
    Flora L, Hassing GS, Cloyd CG, Bevan JA, Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR 1981 The long-term effects of EHDP in dogs. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 4 and 5: 289300.
  • 7
    Albers-Schönberg H 1904 Röntgenbilder einer seltenen Knochenerkrankung. Muenchener Med Wschr 51: 365.
  • 8
    Bollerslev J 1989 Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis: Bone metabolism and epidemiological, clinical, and hormonal aspects. Endocr Rev 10: 4567.
  • 9
    Lajeunesse L, Busque L, Ménard P, Brunette MG, Bonny Y 1996 Demonstration of an osteoblast defect in two cases of human malignant osteopetrosis: Correction of the phenotype after bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Invest 98: 18351842.
  • 10
    Snapper I 1957 Chapter 24: Osteopetrosis, Albers-Schönberg disease, marble bone disease. In: SnapperI (ed.) Bone Disease in Medical Practice. Grune & Stratton, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 175179.
  • 11
    McKenna MJ, Kleerekoper M, Ellis BI, Rao DS, Parfitt AM, Frame B 1987 Atypical insufficiency fractures confused with Looser Zones of osteomalacia. Bone 8: 7178.
  • 12
    Frost HM 1963 Introduction to Biomechanics. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, U.S.A.
  • 13
    Perry HM, Weinstein RS, Teitelbaum SL, Avioli LV, Fallon MD 1982 Pseudofractures in the absence of osteomalacia. Skeletal Radiol 8: 1719.
  • 14
    Weinstein RS, Bell NH 1988 Diminished rate of bone formation in normal black adults. N Engl J Med 319: 1689701.
  • 15
    Heath H, Melton LJ, Chu C-P 1980 Diabetes mellitus and the risk of skeletal fracture. N Engl J Med 303: 567570.
  • 16
    Van Daele PLA, Stolk RP, Burger H, Algra D, Grobbee DE, Hofman A, Birkenhager JC, Pols HAP 1995 Bone density in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: The Rotterdam study. Ann Intern Med 122: 409414.
  • 17
    Eriksen EF, Mosekilde L, Melsen F 1986 Kinetics of trabecular bone resorption and formation in hypothyroidism: Evidence for a positive balance per remodeling cycle. Bone 7: 101108.
  • 18
    Albright F, Reifenstein EC 1948 Chapter 2: Clinical hypoparathyroidism. In: AlbrightF, ReifensteinEC (eds.) The Parathyroid GlsMetabolic Bone Disease. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, U.S.A., pp. 2740.
  • 19
    Bronsky D, Kushner DS, Dubin A, Snapper I 1958 Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism: Case reports and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 37: 317352.
  • 20
    Parfitt AM 1979 Surgical, idiopathic, other varieties of parathyroid hormone-deficient hypoparathyroidism. In: DeOrootU, CahillOFJr, OdellWD (eds.) Endocrinology. Grune & Stratton, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 755768.
  • 21
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Nevitt MC, Bauer DC, Genant HK, Haskell WL, Marcus R, Ott SM, Torner JC, Quandt SA, Reiss TF, Ensrud KE 1996 Randomized trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Lancet 348: 15351541.
  • 22
    Ensrud KE, Black DM, Palermo L, Bauer DC, Barrett-Conner E, Quandt SA, Thompson DE, Karpf DB 1997 Treatment with alendronate prevents fractures in women at highest risk. Arch Intern Med 157: 26172624.
  • 23
    Karpf DB, Shapiro DR, Seeman E, Ensrud KE, Johnston CC, Adami S, Harris ST, Santora AC, Hirsch LJ, Oppenheimer L, Thompson D 1997 Prevention of nonvertebral fractures by alendronate: A meta-analysis. JAMA 277: 11591164.
  • 24
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, Applegate WB, Barrett-Conner E, Musliner TA, Palermo L, Prineas R, Rubin SM, Scott JC, Vogt T, Wallace R, Yates AJ, LaCroix AZ 1998 Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: Results from the fracture intervention trial. JAMA 280: 20772082.
  • 25
    Parfitt AM 1996 Chapter 12: Skeletal heterogeneitythe purposes of bone remodeling. In: MarcusR, FeldmanD, KelseyJ (eds.) Osteoporosis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, U.S.A., pp. 315329.
  • 26
    Mashiba T, Hirano T, Turner CH, Forwood MR, Johnston CC, Burr DB Suppressed bone turnover by bisphosphonates can increase microdamage accumulation and reduce biomechanical properties in dog rib. J Bone Miner Res (in press)
  • 27
    Mortensen L, Charles P, Bekker PJ, Digennaro J, Johnston CC 1998 Risedronate increases bone mass in an early postmenopausal population: Two years of treatment plus one year of follow-up. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 396402.
  • 28
    Jilka RL, Weinstein RS, Takahashi K, Parfitt AM, Manolagas SC 1996 Linkage of decreased bone mass with impaired osteoblastogenesis in a murine model of accelerated senescence. J Clin Invest 97: 17321740.
  • 29
    Rogers EM 1960 Part One: Matter, motion, force. In: Rogers, EM (ed.) Physics for the Inquiring Mind: The Methods, Nature, Philosophy of Physical Science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A., pp. 3190.
  • 30
    Balena R, Toolan BC, Shea M, Markatos A, Myers ER, Lee SC, Opas EE, Seedor JG, Klein H, Frankenfield D, Quartuccio H, Fioravanti C, Clair J, Brown E, Hayes WC, Rodan GA 1993 The effects of 2-year treatment with the aminobisphosphonate alendronate on bone metabolism, bone histomorphometry and bone strength in ovariectomized nonhuman primates. J Clin Invest 92: 25772586.
  • 31
    Bell GH, Dunbar O, Beck JS, Gibb A 1967 Variations in strength of vertebrae with age and their relation to osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Res 1: 7586.
  • 32
    Carter DR, Hayes WC 1977 The compressive behavior of bone as a two-phase porous structure. J Bone Joint Surg Am 59: 954962.
  • 33
    Keen RW 1999 Effects of lifestyle interventions on bone health. Lancet 354: 19231924.
  • 34
    Turner CH, Burr DB 1993 Basic biomechanical measurements of bone: A tutorial. Bone 14: 595608.
  • 35
    Balena R, Markatos A, Guy J, Shea M, Seedor JG, Hayes WC, Peter CP, Rodan GA 1993 Effects of three years treatment with alendronate in adult beagles. J Bone Miner Res 8: S270 (abstract).
  • 36
    Faulkner KG, McClung M, Cummings SR 1994 Automated evaluation of hip axis length for predicting hip fracture. J Bone Miner Res 9: 10651070.
  • 37
    Duan Y, Parfitt AM, Seeman E 1999 Vertebral bone mass, size and volumetric density in women with spinal fractures. J Bone Miner Res 14: 17961802.
  • 38
    Kleerekoper M, Villanueva AR, Stanciu J, Rao DS, Parfitt AM 1985 The role of three-dimensional trabecular microstructure in the pathogenesis of vertebral compression fractures. Calcif Tissue Int 37: 594597.
  • 39
    Weinstein RS, Hutson MS 1987 Decreased trabecular width and increased trabecular spacing contribute to bone loss with aging. Bone 8: 137142.
  • 40
    Weinstein RS, Majumdar S 1994 Fractal geometry and vertebral compression fractures. J Bone Miner Res 9: 17971802.
  • 41
    Weinstein RS, Sappington LJ 1982 Qualitative bone defect in uremic osteosclerosis. Metabolism 31: 805811.
  • 42
    Sogaard CH, Mosekilde Li, Richards A, Mosekilde Le 1994 Marked decrease in trabecular bone quality after five years of sodium fluoride therapy—assessed by biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies in osteoporotic patients. Bone 15: 393399.
  • 43
    Langdahl BT, Ralston SH, Grant SFA, Eriksen EF 1998 An Sp1 binding site polymorphism in the COLIA1 gene predicts osteoporotic fractures in both men and women. J Bone Miner Res 13: 13841389.
  • 44
    Weinstein RS, Manolagas SC 2000 Apoptosis and Osteoporosis. Am J Med 108: 153164.
  • 45
    Plotkin LI, Weinstein RS, Parfitt AM, Roberson PK, Manolagas SC, Bellido T 1999 Prevention of osteocyte and osteoblast apoptosis by bisphosphonates and calcitonin. J Clin Invest 104: 13631374.
  • 46
    Parfitt AM 1993 Pathophysiology of bone fragility. Fourth International Symposium on OsteoporosisConsensus Development Conference, Helstrykkeriet Aalborg ApS, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 164166.
  • 47
    Riggs BL, Melton LJ, O'Fallon WM 1993 Toward optimal therapy of established osteoporosis: evidence that antiresorptiveformation-stimulating regimens decrease vertebral fracture rate by independent mechanisms. Fourth International Symposium on OsteoporosisConsensus Development Conference, Helstrykkeriet Aalborg ApS, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 1315.
  • 48
    Lafage M-H, Balena R, Battle MA, Shea M, Seedor JG, Klein H, Hayes WC, Rodan GA 1995 Comparison of alendronate and sodium fluoride effects on cancellous and cortical bone in minipigs: A one-year study. J Clin Invest 95: 21272133.