• 1
    Cummings SR, Kelsey JL, Nevitt M, O'Dowd KJ 1985 Epidemiology of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Epidemiol Rev 7: 178208.
  • 2
    Ross PD, Wasnich RD, Davis JW 1990 Fracture prediction models for osteoporosis prevention. Bone 11: 327331.
  • 3
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Genant HK, Nevitt MC, Palermo L, Browner WS 1992 Axial bone density predicts fractures in older women. J Bone Miner Res 7: 633638.
  • 4
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner W, Cauley J, Ensrud K, Genant HK, Palermo L, Scott J, Vogt TM 1993 Bone density of various sites for prediction of hip fractures. Lancet 341: 7275.
  • 5
    Hui SL, Slemenda CW, Johnston CC Jr 1988 Age and bone mass as predictors of fracture in a prospective study. J Clin Invest 81: 18041809.
  • 6
    Ross PD, Davis JW, Vogel JM, Wasnich RD 1990 A critical review of bone mass and the risk of fractures in osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 46: 14961.
  • 7
    Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Wahner HW, Riggs BL 1993 Long-term fracture prediction by bone mineral assessed at different skeletal sites. J Bone Miner Res 8: 12271233.
  • 8
    Kanis JA and the WHO Study Group 1994 Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: Synopsis of a WHO report. Osteoporos Int 4: 368381.
  • 9
    Looker AC, Johnston CC Jr, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB 1995 Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. women from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 10: 17.
  • 10
    Hannan MT, Felson DT, Anderson JJ 1992 Bone mineral density in elderly men and women: Results from the Framingham osteoporosis study. J Bone Miner Res 7: 547553.
  • 11
    Ensrud KE, Palermo L, Black DM, Cauley J, Jergas M, Orwoll ES, Nevitt MC, Fox KM, Cummings SR 1995 Hip and calcaneal bone loss increases with advancing age. Longitudinal results from the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 10: 17781787.
  • 12
    Jones G, Nguyen T, Sambrook P, Kelly PJ, Eisman JA 1994 Progressive loss of bone in the femoral neck in elderly people: Longitudinal findings from the Dubbo osteoporosis epidemiology study. BMJ 309: 691695.
  • 13
    Cali CM, Kiel DP 1995 Age-related bone loss in the “old” old: A longitudinal study of institutionalized elderly. (Abstract) J Bone Miner Res 10(Suppl 1): S467.
  • 14
    Greenspan SL, Maitland LA, Myers ER, Krasnow MB, Kido TH 1994 Femoral bone loss progresses with age: A longitudinal study in women over age 65. J Bone Miner Res 9: 19591965.
  • 15
    Burger H. Van Daele PL, Algra D, van den Ouweland FA, Grobbee DE, Hofman A, van Kuijk C, Schutte HE, Birkenhager JC, Pols HA 1994 The association between age and bone mineral density in men and women aged 55 years and over: The Rotterdam study. Bone Miner 25: 113.
  • 16
    Sowers MF, Clark K, Wallace R, Jannausch M, Lemke J 1991 Prospective study of radial bone mineral density in a geographically defined population of postmenopausal Caucasian women. Calcif Tissue Int 48: 232239.
  • 17
    Steiger P, Cummings SR, Black DM, et al 1992 Age-related decrements in bone mineral density in women over 65. J Bone Miner Res 7: 625632.
  • 18
    Burger H, de Laet C, van Daele P, Weel A, Witteman J, Hofman A, Pols H 1998 Risk factors of increased bone loss in an elderly population: The Rotterdam study. Am J Epidemiol 147: 871879.
  • 19
    Dawber TR, Meadors GF, Moore FE Jr 1951 Epidemiological approaches to heart disease: The Framingham study. Am J Public Health 41: 279286.
  • 20
    Dawber TR 1980 The Framingham Study. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.
  • 21
    Shurtleff D 1970 The Framingham Study: An Epidemiological Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease. KannelWB, GordonT (eds.) U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • 22
    Kiel DP, Mercier CA, Dawson-Hughes B, Cali C, Hannan MT, Anderson JJ 1995 Effects of scan analysis technique and analytic software on the comparison of dual-x-ray absorptiometry with dual photon absorptiometry of the hip in the elderly. J Bone Miner Res 10: 11301136.
  • 23
    Kiel DP, Felson DT, Hannan MT, Anderson JJ, Wilson PWF 1990 Caffeine and the risk of hip fracture: The Framingham study. Am J Epidemiol 132: 675684.
  • 24
    Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox KM, Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Black D, Vogt TM 1995 Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. New Engl J Med 332: 767773.
  • 25
    Kiel DP, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Anderson JJ, Felson DT 1996 The effect of smoking at different life stages on bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Osteoporos Int 6: 240248.
  • 26
    Harris SS, Dawson-Hughes B 1994 Caffeine and bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 60: 573578.
  • 27
    Felson DT, Kiel DP, Anderson JJ, Kannel WB 1988 Alcohol consumption and hip fracture: The Framingham study. Am J Epidemiol 128: 11021110.
  • 28
    Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Kannel WM, Kiel DP 1995 Alcohol intake and bone mineral density in elderly men and women: The Framingham study. Am J Epidemiol 142: 485492.
  • 29
    Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Kiel DP, Wilson PWF, Anderson JJ 1993 The effect of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on bone density in elderly women. N Engl J Med 329: 11411146.
  • 30
    Hannan MT, Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Naimark A 1993 Habitual physical activity and knee osteoarthritis in the Framingham study. J Rheumatol 20: 704709.
  • 31
    Kannel WB, Sorlie PD 1979 Some health benefits of physical activity: The Framingham study. Arch Intern Med 139: 857861.
  • 32
    Kannel WB, Wilson P, Blair SN 1985 Epidemiological assessment of the role of physical activity and fitness in development of cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J 109: 876885.
  • 33
    Kannel WB 1967 Habitual level of physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease: The Framingham study. Can Med Assoc J 96: 811812.
  • 34
    Preece MA, O'Riordan JLH, Lawson DEM, Kodicek E 1974 A Competitive protein-binding assay for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyergocalciferol in serum. Clin Chim Acta 54: 235242.
  • 35
    Kiel DP, Myers RH, Kong XF, Zhu XH, Ordovas J, Felson DT, Rush D, Wilson PWF, Eisman JA, Holick MF 1997 The BsmI vitamin D receptor restriction fragment length polymorphism (bb) is associated with higher bone density in younger, but not older persons, and influences the effect of calcium intake on bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 12: 10491057.
  • 36
    Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Harris S, Sokoll LJ, Falconer G 1991 Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 115: 505512.
  • 37
    Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE 1985 Reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 122: 5165.
  • 38
    Jacques PF, Sulsky SI, Sadowski JA, Phillips JC, Rush D, Willett WC 1993 Comparison of micronutrient intake measured by a dietary questionnaire and biochemical indicators of micronutrient status. Am J Clin Nutr 57: 182189.
  • 39
    Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyes SP, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsey RL 1995 Proximal femur bone mineral levels of U.S. adults. Osteoporos Int 5: 389409.
  • 40
    Genant HK, Grampp S, Gluer CC, Faulkner KG, Jergas M, Engelke K, Hagiwara S, Van Kuijk C 1994 Universal standardization for dual x-ray absorptiometry: Patient and phantom cross-calibration results. J Bone Miner Res 9: 15031514.
  • 41
    Davis JW, Ross PD, Wasnich RD, Maclean CJ, Vogel JM 1989 Comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal measurements of age-related changes in bone mineral content. J Bone Miner Res 4: 351357.
  • 42
    Mazess RB, Barden HS, Ettinger M, Johnston C, Dawson-Hughes B, Baran D, Powell M, Notelovitz M 1987 Spine and femur density using dual-photon absorptiometry in U.S. white women. Bone Miner 2: 211219.
  • 43
    Ribot C, Tremolliers F, Pouilles JM, Louvet JP, Guiraud R 1988 Influence of the menopause and aging on spinal density in French women. Bone Miner 5: 8997.
  • 44
    Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Seeman E, Offord KP, Dunn WL, Mazess RB, Johnson KA, Melton LJ III 1982 Changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur and spine with aging: Differences between the postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis syndromes. J Clin Invest 70: 716723.
  • 45
    Hopkins A, Zylstra S, Hreshchyshyn M 1988 Normal and abnormal features of the lumbar spine observed in dual-photon absorptiometry scans. Clin Nucl Med 14: 410414.
  • 46
    Stutzman ME, Yester MV, Duborsky EV 1987 Technical aspects of dual photon absorptiometry of the spine. J Nucl Med Tech 15: 177181.
  • 47
    Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE 1990 Effect of radiographic abnormalities on rate of bone loss from the spine. Calcif Tissue Int 46: 280281.
  • 48
    Hui SL, Wiske PS, Norton JA, Johnston Jr CC 1982 A prospective study of change in bone mass with age in postmenopausal women. J Chron Dis 35: 715725.
  • 49
    Eastell R, Riggs BL, Wahner HW, O'Fallon WM, Amadio PC, Melton LJ III 1989 Colles' fracture and bone density of the ultradistal radius. J Bone Miner Res 4: 607613.
  • 50
    Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Anderson JJ 1993 Effects of weight and body mass index on bone mineral density in men and women: The Framingham study. J Bone Miner Res 8: 567573.
  • 51
    Edelstein Sl, Barrett-Connor E 1993 Relation between body size and bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Epidemiol 138: 160169.
  • 52
    Bauer DC, Browner WS, Cauley JA, Orwoll ES, Scott JC, Black DM, Tao JL, Cummings SR 1993 Factors associated with appendicular bone mass in older women. Ann Intern Med 118: 657665.
  • 53
    Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B 1994 Walking is related to bone density and rates of bone loss. Am J Med 96: 2026.
  • 54
    Greendale GA, Barrett-Connor E, Edelstein SL, Ingles S, Haile R 1995 Lifetime leisure exercise and osteoporosis. Am J Epidemiol 141: 951959.
  • 55
    Holbrook T, Barrett-Conner E 1993 A prospective study of alcohol consumption and bone mineral density. BMJ 306: 150169.
  • 56
    Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Sadowski L, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S 1990 A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 323: 878883.
  • 57
    Hansen MA, Overgaard K, Riis BJ, Christiansen C 1991 Potential risk factors for development of postmenopausal osteoporosis—examined over a 12-year period. Osteoporos Int 1: 95102.
  • 58
    Laitinen K, Valimaki M 1991 Alcohol and bone. Calcif Tissue Int 49(Suppl): S70S73.
  • 59
    Elders PJM, Netelenbos JC, Lips P, Khoe E, van Ginkel FC, Hulshof KF, van der Stelt PF 1989 Perimenopausal bone mass and risk factors. Bone Miner 7: 289299.
  • 60
    Hollenbach KA, Barrett-Connor E, Edelstein SL, Holbrook T 1993 Cigarette smoking and bone mineral density in older men and women. Am J Public Health 83: 12651270.
  • 61
    Hopper JL, Seeman E 1994 The bone density of female twins discordant for tobacco use. N Engl J Med 330: 387392.
  • 62
    Cauley JA, Gutai JP, Sandler RB, LaPorte RE, Kuller LH, Sashin D 1986 The relationship of endogenous estrogen to bone density and bone area in normal postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 124: 752761.
  • 63
    Cauley JA, Gutai JP, Kuller LH, Scott J, Nevitt MC 1994 Black-White differences in serum sex hormones and bone mineral density. Am J Epidemiol 139: 10351046.
  • 64
    Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B, Hannan MT, Kiel DP 1997 Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy protects against tooth loss. Am J Med 102: 536542.
  • 65
    Kiel DP 1995 Vitamin D, calciumbone: Descriptive epidemiology. In: RosenbergRH (ed.) Nutritional Assessment of Elderly Populations, vol 13. Raven Press, New York, NY, U.S.A., pp. 277290.
  • 66
    Paganini-Hill A, Chao A, Ross RK, Henderson BE 1991 Exercise and other factors in the prevention of hip fracture: The leisure world study. Epidemiology 2: 1625.