• 1
    Rico H 1997 The therapy of osteoporosis and the importance of cortical bone. Calcif Tissue Int 61: 431432.
  • 2
    Eastell R, Blumsohn A 1997 The value of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis. J Rheumatol 24: 12151217.
  • 3
    Wootton R, Reeve J, Veall N 1976 The clinical measurement of skeletal blood flow. Clin Sci Mol Med 50: 261268.
  • 4
    Charkes ND, Makler PT, Philips C 1978 Studies of skeletal tracer kinetics. 1. Digital computer solution of a five compartment model of 18F fluoride kinetics in humans. J Nucl Med 19: 13011309.
  • 5
    Fogelman I, Bessent RG, Turner JG, Citrin DL, Boyle IT, Greig WR 1978 The use of whole body retention of Tc 99m diphosphonate in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease. J Nucl Med 19: 270275.
  • 6
    Duan Y, Tabensky A, DeLuca V, Seeman E 1997 The benefit of hormone replacement therapy on bone mass is greater at the vertebral body than posterior processes or proximal femur. Bone 21: 447451.
  • 7
    Nottestad SY, Baumel JJ, Kimmel DB, Recker RR, Heaney RP 1987 The proportion of trabecular bone in human vertebrae. J Bone Miner Res 2: 221229.
  • 8
    Seeman E, Formica C, Mosekilde L 1995 Equivalent deficits in bone mass of the vertebral body and posterior processes in women with vertebral fractures: Implications regarding the pathogenesis of spinal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 10: 20052010.
  • 9
    Bell KL, Loveridge N, Power J, Garrahan N, Stanton M, Lunt M, Meggitt BF, Reeve J 1999 Structure of the femoral neck in hip fracture: Cortical bone loss in the inferoanterior to superoposterior axis. J Bone Miner Res 14: 111119.
  • 10
    Genant HK, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Gluer CC, Grampp S, Harris ST, Jergas M, Lang T, Lu Y, Majumdar S, Mathur A, Takada M 1996 Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral and structure: state of the art. J Bone Miner Res 11: 707730.
  • 11
    Yoshida Y, Moriya A, Kitamura K, Inazu M, Okimoto N, Okazaki Y, Nakamura T 1998 Responses of trabecular and cortical bone turnover and bone mass and strength to bisphosphonate YH529 in ovariohysterectomized beagles with calcium restriction. J Bone Miner Res 13: 10111022.
  • 12
    Li G, Bronk JT, Kelly PJ 1989 Canine bone blood flow estimated with microspheres. J Orthop Res 7: 6167.
  • 13
    Wootton R, Dore C 1986 The single-passage extraction of 18F in rabbit bone. Clin Phys Physiol Meas 7: 333343.
  • 14
    Israel O, Lubushitzky R, Frenkel A, Iosilevsky G, Bettman L, Gips S, Hardoff R, Baron E, Barzilai D, Kolodny GM 1994 Bone turnover in cortical and trabecular bone in normal women and women with osteoporosis. J Nucl Med 35: 11551158.
  • 15
    Hawkins RA, Choi Y, Huang SC, Hoh CK, Dahlbom M, Schiepers C, Satyamurthy N, Barrio JR, Phelps ME 1992 Evaluation of skeletal kinetics of fluorine-18-fluoride ion with PET. J Nucl Med 33: 633642.
  • 16
    Schiepers C, Nuyts J, Bormans G, Dequeker J, Bouillon R, Mortelmans L, Verbruggen A, De Roo M 1997 Fluoride kinetics of the axial skeleton measured in vivo with fluorine-18-fluoride PET. J Nucl Med 38: 19701976.
  • 17
    Blau M, Nagler W, Bender MA 1962 A new isotope for bone scanning. J Nucl Med 3: 332334.
  • 18
    Blau M, Ganatra R, Bender M 1972 18F-fluoride for bone imaging. Semin Nucl Med 2: 3137.
  • 19
    Narita N, Kato K, Nakagaki H, Ohno N, Kameyama Y, Weatherell JA 1990 Distribution of fluoride concentration in rat bone. Calcif Tissue Int 46: 200204.
  • 20
    Ishiguro K, Nakagaki H, Tsuboi S, Narita N, Kato K, Li J, Kamei H, Yoshioka I, Miyauchi K, Hosoe H, Shimano R, Weatherell JA, Robinson C 1993 Distribution of fluoride in cortical bone of human rib. Calcif Tissue Int 52: 278282.
  • 21
    Reeve J, Arlot M, Wootton R, Edouard C, Tellez M, Hesp R, Green JR, Meunier PJ 1988 Skeletal blood flow, iliac histomorphometry and strontium kinetics in osteoporosis: A relationship between blood flow and corrected apposition rate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 66: 11241131.
  • 22
    World Health Organization (WHO) 1994 Assessment of fracture riskits application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Technical Report Series No. 843, WHO, Geneva, Switzerl.
  • 23
    Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL 1998 Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of U.S. adults. Osteoporos Int 8: 468489.
  • 24
    Ranicar ASO, Williams CW, Schnorr L, Clark JC, Rhodes CG, Bloomfield PM, Jones T 1991 The on-line monitoring of continuously withdrawn arterial blood during PET studies using a single BGO/photomultiplier assembly and nonstick tubing. Med Prog Technol 17: 259264.
  • 25
    Eberl S, Anayat AR, Fulton RR, Hooper PK, Fulham MJ 1997 Evaluation of two population based input function for quantitative neurological FDG PET studies. Eur J Nucl Med 24: 299304.
  • 26
    Whyte MP, Bergfeld MA, Murphy WA, Avioli LV, Teitelbaum SL 1982 Postmenopausal osteoporosis: a heterogeneous disorder as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone from untreated patients. Am J Med 72: 193201.
  • 27
    Messa C, Goodman WG, Hoh CK, Choi Y, Nissenson AR, Salusky IB, Phelps ME, Hawkins RA 1993 Bone metabolic activity measured with positron emission tomography and 18F-fluoride ion in renal osteodystrophy: Correlation with bone histomorphometry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77: 949955.
  • 28
    Piert M, Zittel TT, Machulla HJ, Becker AG, Jahn M, Maier G, Bares R, Becker HD 1998 Blood flow measurements with [15O]H2O and [18F]fluoride ion PET in porcine vertebrae. J Bone Miner Res 13: 13281336.
  • 29
    Sorenson JA, Phelps ME 1987 Physics in Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.
  • 30
    Morris MA, Kelly PJ 1980 Use of tracer microspheres to measure bone blood flow in conscious dogs. Calcif Tissue Int 32: 6976.
  • 31
    Hosking DJ. Chamberlain MJ 1972 Studies in man with 18 F. Clin Sci 42: 15361.
  • 32
    Hooper G, McCarthy ID, Wootton R, Hughes SPF 1984 Fluid spaces in the canine tibia. In: ArletJ, FicatRP, HungerfordDS (eds.) Bone Circulation. WilliamsWilkins, Baltimore, MD, U.S.A., pp. 204206.
  • 33
    Minn H, Zasadny KR, Quint LE, Wahl RL 1995 Lung cancer: reproducibility of quantitative measurements for evaluating 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake at PET. Radiology. 196: 167173.