• 1
    Aarden LA, de Groot ER, Schaap OL, Lansdorp PM 1987 Production of hybridoma growth factor by human monocytes. Eur J Immunol 17:14111416.
  • 2
    Girasole G, Jilka RL, Passeri G, Boswell S, Boder G, Williams DC, Manolagas SC 1992 17β-Estradiol inhibits interleukin-6 production by bone marrow-derived stromal cells and osteoblasts in vitro: A potential mechanism for the antiosteoporotic effect of estrogens. J Clin Invest 89:883891.
  • 3
    Lowik CW, van der Pluijm G, Bloys H, Hoekman K, Bijvoet OL, Aarden LA, Papapoulos SE 1989 Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-like protein (PLP) stimulate interleukin-6 production by osteogenic cells: A possible role of interleukin-6 in osteoclastogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 162:15461552.
  • 4
    van Damme J, Cayphas S, Opdenakker G, Billiau A, van Snick J 1987 Interleukin 1 and poly(rI)·poly(rC) induce production of a hybridoma growth factor by human fibroblasts. Eur J Immunol 17:17.
  • 5
    Ishimi Y, Miyaura C, Jin CH, Akatsu T, Abe E, Nakamura Y, Yamaguchi A, Yoshiki S, Matsuda T, Hirano T, Kishimoto T, Suda T 1990 IL-6 is produced by osteoblasts and induces bone resorption. J Immunol 145:32973303.
  • 6
    Kurihara N, Bertolini D, Suda T, Akiyama Y, Roodman GD 1990 IL-6 stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in long term human marrow cultures by inducing IL-1 release. J Immunol 144:42264230.
  • 7
    Black K, Garrett IR, Mundy GR 1991 Chinese hamster ovarian cells transfected with the murine interleukin-6 gene cause hypercalcemia as well as cachexia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in tumor-bearing nude mice. Endocrinology 128:26572659.
  • 8
    Manolagas SC, Jilka RL 1995 Bone marrow, cytokines, and bone remodeling. Emerging insights into the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 332:305311.
  • 9
    Franchimont N, Canalis E 1995 Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates the synthesis of interleukin-6 in cells of the osteoblast lineage. Endocrinology 136:54695475.
  • 10
    Kozawa O, Suzuki A, Tokuda H, Uematsu T 1997 Prostaglandin F stimulates interleukin-6 synthesis via activation of PKC in osteoblast-like cells. Am J Physiol 272:E208E211.
  • 11
    Kozawa O, Suzuki A, Tokuda H, Kaida T, Uematsu T 1997 Protein kinase C activation by interleukin (IL)-1 limits IL-1-induced IL-6 synthesis in osteoblast-like cells: Involvement of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. J Cell Biochem 67:103111.
  • 12
    Kozawa O, Suzuki A, Takehiro K, Tokuda H, Uematsu T 1997 Tumor necrosis factor -α autoregulates interleukin-6 synthesis via activation of protein kinase C: Function of sphingosine-1-phosphate and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. J Biol Chem 272:2509925104.
  • 13
    Greenfield EM, Horowitz MC, Lavish SA 1996 Stimulation by parathyroid hormone of interleukin-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor expression in osteoblasts is an immediate-early gene response induced by cAMP signal transduction. J Biol Chem 271:1098410989.
  • 14
    Kim GS, Kim, CH, Choi CS, Park JY, Lee K-U 1997 Involvement of different second messengers in parathyroid hormone- and interleukin-1-induced interleukin-6 and interleukin-11 production in human bone marrow stromal cells J Bone Miner Res 12:896902.
  • 15
    Onyia JE, Liberman TA, Bidwell J, Arnold D, Tu Y, McClelland P, Hock JM 1997 Parathyroid hormone (1-34)-mediated interleukin-6 induction. J Cell Biochem 67:265274.
  • 16
    Huang YF, Harrison JR, Lorenzo JA, Kream BE 1998 Parathyroid hormone induces interleukin-6 heterogeneous nuclear and messenger RNA expression in murine calvarial organ cultures. Bone 23:327332.
  • 17
    Stewart PJ, Stern PH 1987 Calcium/phosphatidylserine-stimulated protein phosphorylation in bone: Effect of parathyroid hormone. J Bone Miner Res 2:281287.
  • 18
    Abou-Samra AB, Jueppner H, Westerberg D, Potts JT Jr, Segre GV 1989 Parathyroid hormone causes translocation of protein kinase-C from cytosol to membranes in rat osteosarcoma cells. Endocrinology 124:11071113.
  • 19
    Iida-Klein A, Varlotta V, Hahn TJ 1989 Protein kinase C activity in UMR-106-01 cells: Effects of parathyroid hormone and insulin. J Bone Miner Res 4:76774.
  • 20
    Chakravarthy BR, Durkin JP, Rixon RH, Whitfield JF 1990 Parathyroid hormone fragment [3-34] stimulates protein kinase C (PKC) activity in rat osteosarcoma and murine T-lymphoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 171:11051110.
  • 21
    Fujimori A, Cheng SL, Avioli LV, Civitelli R 1992 Structure-function relationship of parathyroid hormone: Activation of phospholipase-C, protein kinase-A and -C in osteosarcoma cells. Endocrinology 130:2936.
  • 22
    Bos MP, Most W, van Leeuwen JPTM, Herrmann-Erlee MPM 1992 Role of protein kinase C (PKC) in bone resorption: Effect of the specific PKC inhibitor 1-alkyl-2-methylglycerol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184:13171323.
  • 23
    Ransjo M, Lerner UH 1990 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a phorbol ester stimulating protein kinase C, inhibits bone resorption in vitro induced by parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide of malignancy. Acta Physiol Scand 139:24950.
  • 24
    Partridge NC, Bloch SR, Pearman AT 1994 Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic gene expression. J Cell Biochem 55:321327.
  • 25
    Sanders JL, Stern PH 1996 Expression and phorbol ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C isozymes in osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res 11:18621872.
  • 26
    Bruns RF, Miller FD, Merriman RL, Howbert JJ, Heath WF, Kobayashi E, Takahashi I, Tamaoki T, Nakano H 1991 Inhibition of protein kinase C by calphostin C is light-dependent. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 176:288293.
  • 27
    McGee DW, Beagley KW, Aicher WK, McGhee JR 1992 Transforming growth factor-β enhances interleukin-6 secretion by intestinal epithelial cells. Immunology 77:712.
  • 28
    Hansen MB, Nielsen SE, Berg K 1989 Re-examination and further development of a precise and rapid dye method for measuring cell growth/cell kill. J Immunol Methods 119:203210.
  • 29
    Johnson RA, Salomon Y 1991 Assay of adenylyl cyclase catalytic activity. Methods Enzymol 195:321.
  • 30
    Freyaldenhoven AM, Gutierrez GE, Lifschitz MD, Katz MS 1992 Protein kinase C differentially modulates PTH- and PGE2-sensitive adenylate cyclase in osteoblast-like cells. Am J Physiol 262:E87E95.
  • 31
    Koch HM, Muir H, Gelderblom D, Hough S 1992 Protein kinase C modulates parathyroid hormone- but not prostaglandin E2-mediated stimulation of cyclic AMP production via the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein in UMR-106 osteosarcoma cells. J Bone Miner Res 7:13531362.
  • 32
    Kitten AM, Hymer TK, Katz MS 1994 Bidirectional modulation of parathyroid hormone-responsive adenylyl cyclase by protein kinase C. Am J Physiol 266:E897E904.
  • 33
    Rao LG, Murray TM 1989 Calcium and protein kinase C enhance parathyroid hormone- and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Calcif Tissue Int 45:354359.
  • 34
    Ikeda K, Sugimoto T, Fukase M, Fujita T 1991 Protein kinase C is involved in PTH-induced homologous desensitization by directly affecting PTH receptor in the osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. Endocrinology 128:29012906.
  • 35
    Fukayama S, Tashjian AH Jr, Bringhurst FR 1992 Mechanisms of desensitization to parathyroid hormone in human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Endocrinology 131:17571769.
  • 36
    Shankar G, Stern PH 1993 Evaluation of the role of second messenger systems in tumor necrosis factor-stimulated resorption of fetal rat limb bones. Bone 14:871876.
  • 37
    Schutze S, Berkovic D, Tomsing O, Unger C, Kronke M 1991 Tumor necrosis factor induces rapid production of 1′2′ diacylglycerol by a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. J Exp Med 174:975988.
  • 38
    Schutze S, Wiegmann K, Machleidt T, Kronke M 1995 TNF-induced activation of NF-κB. Immunobiol 193:193203.
  • 39
    Kurokouchi K, Kambe F, Yasukawa K, Izumi R, Ishiguro N, Iwata H, Seo H 1998 TNF-α increases expression of IL-6 and ICAM-1 genes through activation of NF-κB in osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells. J Bone Miner Res 13:12901299.
  • 40
    Norris JG, Tang LP, Sparacio SM, Benveniste EN 1994 Signal transduction pathways mediating astrocyte IL-6 induction by IL-1 β and tumor necrosis factor-α. J Immunol 152:41850.
  • 41
    Kozawa O, Tokuda H, Matsuno H, Uematsu T 1997 Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in sphingosine-1-phosphate-stimulated interleukin-6 synthesis in osteoblasts. FEBS Lett 418:149151.
  • 42
    Tanabe O, Akira S, Kamiya T, Wong GG, Hirano T, Kishimoto T 1988 Genomic structure of the murine IL-6 gene. High degree conservation of potential regulatory sequences between mouse and human. J Immunol 141:38753881.
  • 43
    Sims JE, Gayle MA, Slack JL, Alderson MR, Bird TA, Giri JG, Re F, Mantovani A, Shanebeck K, Gradstein KH, Dower SK 1993 Interleukin 1 signaling occurs exclusively via the type I receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:61556159.
  • 44
    Colotta F, Re F, Muzio M, Bertini R, Tolentarutti N, Sironi M, Dower SK, Sims JE, Mantovani A 1993 Interleukin-1 type II receptor: A decoy target for IL-1 that is regulated by IL-4. Science 261:472475.
  • 45
    Lacey DL, Grosso LE, Moser SA, Erdmann J, Tan HL, Pacifici R, Villareal DT 1993 IL-1 induced murine osteoblast IL-6 production is mediated by the type 1 IL-1 receptor and is increased by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Invest 91:17311742.
  • 46
    Gross V, Zhang B, Geng Y, Villiger PM, Lotz M 1993 Regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression: Evidence for a tissue-specific role of protein kinase C. J Clin Immunol 13:310320.
  • 47
    Hug H, Sarre TF 1993 Protein kinase C isoenzyzmes: Divergence in signal transduction? Biochem J 291:329343.
  • 48
    Ono Y, Fujii T, Ogita K, Kikkawa U, Igarashi K, Nishizuka Y 1989 Protein kinase C ζ subspecies from rat brain: Its structure, expression, and properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:30993103.
  • 49
    Selbie LA, Schmitz-Peiffer C, Sheng Y, Biden TJ 1993 Molecular cloning and characterization of PKCι, an atypical isoform of protein kinase C derived from insulin-secreting cells. J Biol Chem 268:2429624302.
  • 50
    Akimoto K, Mizuno K, Osada S, Hirai S, Tanuma S, Suzuki K, Ohno S 1994 A new member of the third class in the protein kinase C family, PKCλ, expressed dominantly in an undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line and also in many tissues and cells. J Biol Chem 269:1267712683.
  • 51
    Castagna M, Takai Y, Kaibuchi K, Sano K, Kikkawa U, Nishizuka Y 1982 Direct activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase by tumor-promoting phorbol esters. J Biol Chem 257:78477851.
  • 52
    Young S, Parker PJ, Ullrich A, Stabel S 1987 Down-regulation of protein kinase C is due to an increased rate of degradation. Biochem J 244:775779.