• 1
    Miller PD Jr 1999 Management of osteoporosis. Adv Intern Med 44:175207.
  • 2
    Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP 1997 Prevalence of low femoral density in older US adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 12:17611768.
  • 3
    Melton LJ, Thamer M, Ray NF, Chan JK, Chestnut DH III, Einhorn TA, Johnston CC, Raisz LG, Silverman SL, Siris ES 1997 Fractures attributable to osteoporosis: Report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. J Bone Miner Res 12:1623.
  • 4
    Lau EMC 1999 The epidemiology of osteoporosis: The Asian scene in world perspective (abstract). Third International Congress on Osteoporosis, Xi'an, China, pp. 158160.
  • 5
    Cummings SR, Cauley JA, Palermo L, Ross PD, Wasnich RD, Black D, Faulkner KG 1994 Racial differences in hip axis length might explain racial differences in rates of hip fracture. Osteoporos Int 4:226229.
  • 6
    Fassler ALC, Bonjour JP 1996 Osteoporosis as a pediatric problem. Pediatr Nutr 42:81123.
  • 7
    Magarey AM, Boulton TJC, Chatterton BE, Schultz C, Nordin BEC, Cockington RA 1999 Bone growth from 11 to 17 years: Relationship to growth, gender and changes with pubertal status including timing of menarche. Acta Paediatr 88:13946.
  • 8
    Ferrari S, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Bonjour J-P 1998 Familial resemblance for bone mineral mass is expressed before puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:358361.
  • 9
    Sainz J, Van Turnout JM, Sayre J, Kaufman F, Gilsanz V 1999 Association of collagen type 1 α1 gene polymorphism with bone density in early childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:853855.
  • 10
    Bradney M, Pearce G, Naughton G, Sullivan C, Bass S, Beck T, Carlson J, Seeman E 1998 Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: Changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: A controlled prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 13:18141821.
  • 11
    Ilich JZ, Skugor M, Hangartner T, Baoshe A, Matkovic V 1998 Relation of nutrition, body composition and physical activity to skeletal development: A cross-sectional study in preadolescent females. J Am Coll Nutr 17:136147.
  • 12
    Tanner JM, Hughes PCR, Whitehouse RH 1981 Radiographically determined widths of bone, muscle, and fat in the upper arm and calf from age 3–18 years. Ann Hum Biol 8:495517.
  • 13
    Specker BL, Brazerol W, Tsang RC, Levin B, Searcy J, Steichen J 1987 Bone mineral content in children 1 to 6 years of age. Am J Dis Child 141:343344.
  • 14
    Prentice A, Laskey MA, Shaw J, Cole TJ, Fraser DR 1990 Bone mineral content of Gambian and British children aged 0–36 months. Bone Miner 10:211224.
  • 15
    Gilsanz V, Kovanlikaya A, Costin G, Roe TF, Sayre J, Kaufman F 1997 Differential in effects of gender on the sizes of bones in the axial and appendicular skeleton. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:16031607.
  • 16
    Jones G, Dwyer T 1998 Bone mass in prepubertal children: Gender differences and the role of physical activity and sunlight exposure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:42744279.
  • 17
    Horlick M, Thornton JC, Wang J, Fedun B, LaPlante N, Levine LS, Pierson RN Jr 1998 Determinants of fat-free mass (FFM) and its subcomponents in prepubertal children. (abstract) FASEB J 12:A651.
  • 18
    Bell NH, Shary J, Stevens J, Garza M, Gordon L, Edwards J 1991 Demonstration that bone mass is greater in Black than in White children. J Bone Miner Res 7:719723.
  • 19
    Ellis KJ 1997 Body composition of a young, multiethnic male population. Am J Clin Nutr 66:13231331.
  • 20
    Ellis KJ Abrams SA, Wong WW 1997 Body composition of a young, multiethnic female population. Am J Clin Nutr 65:724731.
  • 21
    Nelson DA, Simpson PM, Johnson CC, Barondess DA, Kleerekoper M 1997 The accumulation of whole body skeletal mass in third- and fourth-grade children: Effects of age, gender, ethnicity, and body composition. Bone 20:7378.
  • 22
    Gilsanz V, Roe TF, Mora S, Costin G, Goodman WG 1991 Changes in vertebral bone density in Black girls and White girls during childhood and puberty. N Engl J Med 325:1597600.
  • 23
    Gilsanz V, Skaggs DL, Kovanlikaya A, Sayre J, Loro ML, Kaufman F, Korenman SG 1998 Differential effect of race on the axial and appendicular skeletons of children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:14201427.
  • 24
    Ellis KJ, Shypailo RJ, Hergenroeder A, Perez M, Abrams S 1996 Total body calcium and bone mineral content: Comparison of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry with neutron activation analysis. J Bone Miner Res 11:843848.
  • 25
    Prentice A, Parsons TJ, Cole TJ 1994 Uncritical use of bone mineral absorptiometry may lead to size-related artifacts in the identification of bone mineral determinants. Am J Clin Nutr 60:83742.
  • 26
    Seeman E 1998 Growth in bone mass and size—are racial and gender differences in bone mineral density more apparent than real? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:14141419.
  • 27
    Molgaard C, Thomsen BL, Cole TJ, Michaelson KF 1997 Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child 76:915.
  • 28
    Warner JT, Cowan FJ, Dunstan FDJ, Evans WD, Webb DKH, Gregory JW 1998 Measured and predicted bone mineral content in healthy boys and girls aged 6–18 years: Adjustment for body size and puberty. Acta Paediatr 87:2449.
  • 29
    Chan GM 1992 Performance of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in evaluating bone, lean body mass, and fat in pediatric subjects. J Bone Miner Res 7:369374.
  • 30
    Elllis KJ, Shypailo J, Pratt JA, Pond WG 1994 Accuracy of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements in children. Am J Clin Nutr 60:660665.
  • 31
    Pintauro SJ, Nagy TR, Duthie CM, Goran MI 1996 Cross-calibration of fat and lean measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to pig carcass analysis in the pediatric body weight range. Am J Clin Nutr 63:293298.
  • 32
    Leonard MB, Propert KJ, Zemel BS, Stallings VA, Feldman HI 1999 Discrepancies in pediatric bone mineral density reference data: Potential for misdiagnosis of osteopenia. J Pediatr 135:182188.
  • 33
    Tanner JM 1962 Growth and adolescence, 2nd Ed. Blackwell, Oxford, U.K.
  • 34
    Mazess RB, Barden HS, Bidek JP, Hanson J 1990 Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for total-body and regional bone-mineral and soft-tissue composition. Am J Clin Nutr 51:110612.
  • 35
    Taylor RW, Gold E, Manning P, Goulding A 1997 Gender differences in body fat content are present well before puberty. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21:10821084.
  • 36
    Choi SC, Trotter M 1970 A statistical study of the multivariate structure and race-sex differences of American White and Negro fetal skeletons. Am J Phys Anthropol 33:307312.
  • 37
    Glastre C, Braillon P, David L, Cochat P, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 1990 Measurement of bone mineral content of the lumbar spine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in normal children: Correlations with growth parameters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 70:13301333.
  • 38
    Faulkner RA, Bailey DA, Drinkwater DT, Wilkinson AA, Houston CS, McKay HH 1993 Regional and total body bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and total body composition in children 8–16 years of age. Calcif Tissue Int 53:712.
  • 39
    Rico H, Revilla M, Villa LF, Hernandez ER, Alvarez de Buergo M, Villa M 1993 Body composition in children and Tanner's stages: A study with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Metabolism 42:967970.
  • 40
    Lu PW, Briody JN, Ogle GD, Morley K, Humphries IRJ, Allen J, Howman-Giles R, Sillence D, Cowell CT 1994 Bone mineral density of total body, spine, and femoral neck in children and young adults: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res 9:14511458.
  • 41
    del Rio L, Carrascosa A, Pons F, Gusinye M, Yeste D, Domenech FM 1994 Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in White Mediterranean Spanish children and adolescents: Changes related to age, sex, and puberty. Pediatr Res 35:362366.
  • 42
    Zanchetta JR, Plotkin H, Alvarez Filguiera ML 1995 Bone mass in children: Normative values for the 2–20 year old population. Bone 16:393S399S.
  • 43
    Boot AM, Bouquet J, de Ridder MAJ, Krenning EP, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SMPF 1997 Determinants of body composition measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in Dutch children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 66:232238.
  • 44
    Boot AM, de Ridder MAJ, Pols HAP, Krenning EP, Muinck Keizer-Schrama SMPF 1997 Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: Relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:5762.
  • 45
    McKormick DP, Ponder SW, Fawcett HD, Palmer JL 1991 Spinal bone mineral density in 335 normal and obese children and adolescents: Evidence for ethnic and sex differences. J Bone Miner Res 6:507513.
  • 46
    Wang M-C, Aguirre M, Bhudikanok GS, Kendall CG, Kirsch S, Marcus R, Bachrach LK 1997 Bone mass and hip axis length in healthy Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White American youths. J Bone Miner Res 12:19221935.
  • 47
    Southard RN, Morris JD, Mahan JD, Hayes JR, Torch MA, Sommer A, Zipf WB 1991 Bone mass in healthy children: Measurement with quantitative DXA. Radiology 179:735738.
  • 48
    Patel DN, Pettifor JM, Becker PJ, Grieve C, Leschner K 1992 The effect of ethnic group on appendicular bone mass in children. J Bone Miner Res 7:263272.
  • 49
    Russell-Aulet M, Wang J, Thornton J, Cole EWD, Pierson RN Jr 1991 Bone mineral density and mass by total-body dual-photon absorptiometry in normal White and Asian men. J Bone Miner Res 6:11091113.
  • 50
    Russell-Aulet M, Wang J, Thornton J, Colt EWD, Pierson RN Jr 1993 Bone mineral density and mass in a cross-sectional study of White and Asian women. J Bone Miner Res 8:575582.
  • 51
    Cundy T, Cornish J, Evans MC, Gamble G, Stapleton J, Reid IR 1995 Sources of interracial variation in bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 10:368373.
  • 52
    Bhudhikanok GS, Wang M-C, Eckert K, Matkin C, Marcus R, Bachrach LK 1996 Differences in bone mineral in young Asian and Caucasian Americans may reflect differences in bone size. J Bone Miner Res 11:15451556.
  • 53
    Genant HK, Grampp S, Gluer CC, Faulkner KG, Jergas M, Engelke K, Hagiwara S, Van Kuifk C 1994 Universal standardization for dual x-ray absorptiometry: patient and phantom cross-calibration results. J Bone Miner Res 9:15031514.
  • 54
    Einhorn TA 1992 Bone strength: The bottom line. Calcif Tissue Int 51:333339.