Low dietary intake is common in elderly males with low femoral neck areal bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the selective influence of a low-protein diet in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in males and to uncover early and late adaptation of bone cells to protein deficiency, 8-month-old male rats were pair-fed a control (15% casein) or isocaloric low-protein (2.5% casein) diet for 1 or 7 months. BMD, bone ultimate strength, stiffness, and absorbed energy were measured in tibia proximal metaphysis and diaphysis. After double-labeling, histomorphometric analysis was performed at the same sites. Serum osteocalcin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion were measured. In proximal tibia, isocaloric low-protein diet significantly decreases BMD (12%), cancellous bone mass (71%), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th; 30%), resulting in a significant reduction in ultimate strength (27%). In cortical middiaphysis, a low-protein diet decreases BMD (9%) and enlarges the medullary cavity (36%), leading to cortical thinning and lower mechanical strength (20%). In cancellous bone, protein deficiency transiently depresses the bone formation rate (BFR; 60%), osteoid seam thickness (15%), and mineral apposition rate (MAR; 20%), indicating a decrease in osteoblast recruitment and activity. Cortical loss (15%) results from an imbalance between endosteal modeling drifts with impaired BFR (70%). From the first week of protein deficiency, osteocalcin and IGF-I levels drop significantly. Bone resorption activity and urinary deoxypyridinoline remain unchanged throughout the experiment. Protein deficiency in aged male rats induces cortical and trabecular thinning, and decreases bone strength, in association with a remodeling imbalance with a bone formation impairment and a decrease in IGF-I levels.