• 1
    Orwoll E, Klein R 1995 Osteoporosis in men. Endocr Rev 16:87116.
  • 2
    Bilezikian JP 1999 Osteoporosis in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:34313434.
  • 3
    Seeman E 1999 Osteoporosis in men. Osteoporos Int 9(Suppl 2):S97S110.
  • 4
    Eastell R, Boyle IT, Compston J, Cooper C, Fogelman I, Francis RM, Hosking DJ, Purdie DW, Ralston S, Reeve J, Reid DM, Russell RG, Stevenson JC 1998 Management of male osteoporosis: Report of the UK Consensus Group. QJM 91:7192.
  • 5
    Geinoz G, Rapin CH, Rizzoli R, Kraemer R, Buchs B, Slosman D, Michel JP, Bonjour JP 1993 Relationship between bone mineral density and dietary intakes in the elderly. Osteoporos Int 3:242248.
  • 6
    Delmi M, Rapin CH, Bengoa JM, Delmas PD, Vasey H, Bonjour JP 1990 Dietary supplementation in elderly patients with fractured neck of the femur [see comments]. Lancet 335:10131016.
  • 7
    Matkovic V, Kostial K, Simonovic I, Buzina R, Brodarec A, Nordin BE 1979 Bone status and fracture rates in two regions of Yugoslavia. Am J Clin Nutr 32:540549.
  • 8
    Munger RG, Cerhan JR, Chiu BC 1999 Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 69:147152.
  • 9
    Schurch MA, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Vadas L, Vergnaud P, Bonjour JP 1998 Protein supplements increase serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels and attenuate proximal femur bone loss in patients with recent hip fracture. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 128:801809.
  • 10
    Parfitt AM 1983 Dietary risk factors for age-related bone loss and fractures. Lancet 2:11811185.
  • 11
    Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, Hensrud DD, Wahner HW, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL, Melton LJI 1996 Dietary protein intake and bone mass in women. Calcif Tissue Int 58:320325.
  • 12
    Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA 1996 Protein consumption and bone fractures in women. Am J Epidemiol 143:472479.
  • 13
    Platt BS, Stewart RJC 1962 Transverse trabeculae and osteoporosis in bones in experimental protein-calorie deficiency. Br J Nutr 16:483495.
  • 14
    Shires R, Avioli L, Bergfeld M, Fallon M, Slatopolski E, Teitelbaum S 1980 Effects of semistarvation on skeletal homeostasis. Endocrinology 107:15301535.
  • 15
    Matsui T, Harumoto T, Yano H, Kawashima R 1991 Protein deficiency suppresses bone resorption in sheep based on a short- term in vivo bone model. J Nutr 121:13551359.
  • 16
    Jha G, Deo M, Ramalingaswami V 1968 Bone growth in protein deficiency. Am J Pathol 53:11111123.
  • 17
    Le Roith D, Pimstone B 1973 Bone metabolism and composition in the protein-deprived rat. Clin Sci 44:305319.
  • 18
    Reed BY, Zerwekh JE, Sakhaee K, Breslau NA, Gottschalk F, Pak CY 1995 Serum IGF 1 is low and correlated with osteoblastic surface in idiopathic osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 10:12181224.
  • 19
    Johansson AG, Eriksen EF, Lindh E, Langdahl B, Blum WF, Lindahl A, Ljunggren O, Ljunghall S 1997 Reduced serum levels of the growth hormone-dependent insulin-like growth factor binding protein and a negative bone balance at the level of individual remodeling units in idiopathic osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:27952798.
  • 20
    Kurland ES, Rosen CJ, Cosman F, Mcmahon D, Chan F, Shane E, Lindsay R, Dempster D, Bilezikian JP 1997 Insulin-like growth factor-I in men with idiopathic osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:27992805.
  • 21
    Arlot ME, Edouard C, Meunier PJ, Neer RM, Reeve J 1984 Impaired osteoblast function in osteoporosis: Comparison between calcium balance and dynamic histomorphometry. BMJ 289:517520.
  • 22
    Jackson JA, Kleerekoper M, Parfitt AM, Rao DS, Villanueva AR, Frame B 1987 Bone histomorphometry in hypogonadal and eugonadal men with spinal osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:5358.
  • 23
    Arlot ME, Bradbeer JN, Edouard C, Green JR, Hesp R, Roux J-P, Meunier PJ, Reeve J 1993 Temporal variations in iliac trabecular bone formation in vertebral osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 52:1015.
  • 24
    Bonjour JP, Ammann P, Rizzoli R 1999 Importance of preclinical studies in the development of drugs for treatment of osteoporosis: A review related to the 1998 WHO guidelines. Osteoporos Int 9:379393.
  • 25
    Ammann P, Bonjour J, Rizzoli R 1998 Essential amino acids supplements correct protein undernutrition-induced bone loss and decreased plasma IGF-I. Bone 23:S490.
  • 26
    Ammann P, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Bonjour JP 1992 Sequential and precise in vivo measurement of bone mineral density in rats using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. J Bone Miner Res 7:311316.
  • 27
    Chappard D, Palle S, Alexandre C, Vico L, Riffat G 1987 Bone embedding in pure methyl methacrylate at low temperature preserves enzyme activities. Acta Histochem 81:183190.
  • 28
    Chappard D, Palle S, Alexandre C, Vico L, Riffat G 1986 Simultaneous identification of calcified cartilage, bone and osteoid tissue on plastic sections. New polychrome procedures specially adapted to image analyser systems. J Histotechnol 9:9599.
  • 29
    Chappard D, Alexandre C, Riffat G 1983 Histochemical identification of osteoclasts. Review of current method and reappraisal of a simple procedure for routine diagnosis on undecalcified human iliac bone biopsies. Bas Appl Histochem 27:7585.
  • 30
    Bourrin S, Palle S, Pupier R, Vico L, Alexandre C 1995 Effect of physical training on bone adaptation in three zones of the rat tibia. J Bone Miner Res 10:17451752.
  • 31
    Parfitt AM, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR 1987 Bone histomorphometry: Standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res 2:595610.
  • 32
    Leutenneger W, Larsen R, Bravo S 1973 The effects of temporary protein deprivation on bone width and bone mineral content in rhesus macaques. Growth 37:369372.
  • 33
    Parfitt AM 1991 Bone remodeling in type I osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 6:9597. (letter; comment)
  • 34
    Parfitt AM, Villanueva AR, Foldes J, Rao DS 1995 Relations between histologic indices of bone formation: Implications for the pathogenesis of spinal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 10:466473.
  • 35
    Thissen J, Underwood LE, Maiter D, Maes M, Clemmons DR, Ketelslegers J 1991 Failure of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) infusion to promote growth in protein-restricted rats despite normalization of serum IGF-I concentrations. Endocrinology 128:885890.
  • 36
    Thissen J, Davenport ML, Pucilowska JB, Miles Mv, Underwood LE 1992 Increased serum clearance and degradation of 125I-labeled IGF-I in protein restricted rats. Am J Physiol 262:E406E411.
  • 37
    Slemenda CW, Longcope C, Zhou L, Hui SL, Peacock M, Johnston CC 1997 Sex steroids and bone mass in older men. Positive associations with serum estrogens and negative associations with androgens. J Clin Invest 100:17551759.
  • 38
    Lamberts S, Van den Beld A, Van der Lely A 1997 The endocrinology of aging. Science 278:419424.
  • 39
    Kenny AM, Gallagher JC, Prestwood KM, Gruman CA, Raisz LG 1998 Bone density, bone turnover, and hormone levels in men over age 75. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 53:M419M425.
  • 40
    Honda Y, Takahashi K, Naito M, Fujiyama S 1995 The role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the differentiation and proliferation of Kupffer cells in the liver of protein-deprived mice. Lab Invest 72:696706.
  • 41
    Garn S, Rohmann C 1964 Compact bone deficiency in protein-calorie malnutrition. Science 145:14441445.
  • 42
    Garn SM, Guzman MA, Wagner B 1969 Subperiosteal gain and endosteal loss in protein-calorie malnutrition. Am J Phys Anthropol 30:153155.
  • 43
    Yahya ZA, Tirapegui JO, Bates PC, Millward DJ 1994 Influence of dietary protein, energy and corticosteroids on protein turnover, proteoglycan sulphation and growth of long bone and skeletal muscle in the rat. Clin Sci (Colch) 87:607618.
  • 44
    Yahya ZA, Millward DJ, Yayha ZA 1994 Dietary protein and the regulation of long-bone and muscle growth in the rat [see published erratum in Clin Sci (Colch) 1994 87(6):xxv]. Clin Sci (Colch) 87:213224.
  • 45
    Orwoll ES 1992 The effects of dietary protein insufficiency and excess on skeletal health. Bone 13:343350.