• 1
    Lanyon L, Skerry T 2001 Postmenopausal osteoporosis as a failure of bone's adaptation to functional loading: A hypothesis. J Bone Miner Res 16:000000.
  • 2
    Tabensky A, Duan Y, Edmonds J, Seeman E 2001 The contribution of reduced peak accrual of bone and age-related bone loss to osteoporosis at the spine and hip: Insights from the daughters of women with vertebral or hip fractures. J Bone Miner Res 16:11011107.
  • 3
    Cohen-Solal ME, Baudoin C, Omouri M, Kuntz D, De Vernejoul MC 1998 Bone mass in middle-aged osteoporotic men and their relatives: Familial effect. J Bone Miner Res 13:19091914.
  • 4
    Bass S, Delmas PD, Pearce G, Hendrich E, Tabensky A, Seeman E 1999 The differing tempo of growth in bone size, mass and density in girls is region-specific. J Clin Invest 104:795804.
  • 5
    Seeman E, Karlsson MK, Duan Y 2000 On exposure to anorexia nervosa, the temporal variation in axial and appendicular skeletal development predisposes to site-specific deficits in bone size and density: A cross-sectional study. J Bone Miner Res 5:22592265.
  • 6
    Seeman E, Duan Y, Fong C, Edmonds J 2001 Fracture site-specific deficits in bone size and volumetric density in men with spine or hip fractures. J Bone Miner Res 16:120127.
  • 7
    Beck TJ, Oreskovic TL, Stone KL, Ruff CB, Ensrud K, Nevitt MC, Genant MC, Cummings SR 2001 Structural adaptation to changing skeletal load in the progression toward hip fragility: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 16:11061119.
  • 8
    Zhang XZ, Kalu DN, Erbas B, Hopper JL, Seeman E 1999 The effect of gonadectomy on bone size, mass and volumetric density in growing rats may be gender-, site-, and growth hormone-dependent. J Bone Miner Res 14:802809.
  • 9
    Parfitt AM, Travers R, Rauch F, Glorieux FH 2000 Structural and cellular changes during bone growth in healthy children. Bone 27:487494.
  • 10
    Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Melton LJ III, Richelson LS, Judd HL, Offord KP 1986 Rate of bone loss in the axial and appendicular skeleton of women: Evidence of substantial vertebral bone loss prior to menopause. J Clin Invest 77:18471491.
  • 11
    Slemenda C, Longscope C, Peacock M, Hui S, Johnston CC 1996 Sex steroids, bone mass and bone loss. A prospective study of pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women. J Clin Invest 1:1421.
  • 12
    Duan Y, Turner CH, Seeman E 2001 Sexual dimorphism in bone fragility is more the result of gender differences in age-related bone gain than bone loss. J Bone Miner Res (in press)
  • 13
    Kimmel DB, Recker RR, Gallagher JC, Vaswani AS, Aloia JF 1990 A comparison of iliac bone histomorphometric data in post-menopausal osteoporotic and normal subjects. Bone Miner 11:217235.
  • 14
    Foldes J, Parfitt AM, Shih M-S, Rao DS, Kleerekoper M 1991 Structural and geometric changes in iliac bone: Relationship to normal aging and osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 6:759766.
  • 15
    Lips P, Courpron P, Meunier PJ 1978 Mean wall thickness of trabecular bone packets in the human iliac crest: Changes with age. Calcif Tissue Res 10:1317.
  • 16
    Parfitt AM 1980 Morphological basis of bone mineral measurements: Transient and steady state effects of treatment in osteoporosis. Miner Electrolyte Metab 4:273287.
  • 17
    Heaney RP 1994 The bone-remodeling transient: Implications for the interpretation of clinical studies of bone mass change. J Bone Miner Res 9:15151523.
  • 18
    Gohel A, McCarthy MB, Gronowicz G 1999 Estrogen prevents glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology 140:53395347.
  • 19
    Manolagas SC 2000 Birth and death of bone cells: Basic regulatory mechanisms and implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 21:115137.
  • 20
    Damien E, Price JS, Lanyon LE 2000 Mechanical strain stimulates osteoblast proliferation through the estrogen receptor in males as well as females. J Bone Miner Res 15:21692177.
  • 21
    Jessop HL, Sjoberg M, Cheng MZ, Saman G, Wheeler-Jones CP, Lanyon LE 2001 Mechanical strain and estrogen activate estrogen receptor alpha in bone cells. J Bone Miner Res 16:10451055.
  • 22
    Kimble RB, Matayoshi AB, Vannice JL, Kung VT, Williams C, Pacific R 1995 Simultaneous block if interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor is required to completely prevent bone loss in the early postovariectomy period. Endocrinology 136:30543061.
  • 23
    Ammann P, Garcia I, Rizzoli R, Meyer JM, Vasalli P, Bonjour JP 1995 Transgenic mice expressing high levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 fusion protein are protected from bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. J Bone Miner Res 10:S1;S139.
  • 24
    Lorenzo JA, Naprta A, Rao Y 1998 Mice lacking the type I interleukin-1 receptor do no lose bone mass after ovariectomy. Endocrinology 139:30223025.
  • 25
    Hofbauer LC, Khosla S, Dunstan CR, Lacey DL, Spelsberg TC, Riggs BL 1999 Estrogen stimulates gene expression and protein production of osteoprotegerin in human osteoblastic cells. Endocrinology 140:43674370.
  • 26
    Hughes DE, Dai A, Tiffee JC, Li HH, Mundy GR, Boyce BF 1996 Estrogen promotes apoptosis of murine osteoclasts mediated by TGF-beta. Nat Med 2:11321136.
  • 27
    Jilka RL, Passeri G, Girasole G, Cooper S. Abrams J, Broxmeyer H, Manaolgas SC 1995 Estrogen loss upregulates hematopoiesis in mouse: A mediating role IL-6. Exp Hematol 23:500506.
  • 28
    Onoe Y, Miyaura C, Ito M, Ohta H, Nozawa S, Suda T 2000 Comparative effects of estrogen and raloxifene on B lymphopoiesis and bone loss induced by sex steroid deficiency in mice. J Bone Miner Res 15:541549.
  • 29
    Cohen-Solal ME, Boitte F, Bernard-Poenaru O, Denne MA, Graulet AM, Brazie M, De Vernejoul MC 1998 Increased bone resorbing activity of peripheral monocyte culture supernatants in elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:16871690.
  • 30
    Kawaguchi H, Pilbeam CC, Vargas SJ, Morse EE, Lorenzo JA, Raisz LG 1995 Ovariectomy enhances and estrogen replacement inhibits the activity of bone marrow factors that stimulate prostaglandin production in cultured mouse calvariae. J Clin Invest 96:539548.
  • 31
    De Gennes C, Kuntz D, De Vernejoul MC 1992 Bone mastocytosis. A report of nine cases with a bone histomorphometric study. Clin Orthop 292:281291.
  • 32
    Pacifici R, Brown C, Puscheck E, Friedrich E, Slatopolsky E, Maggio D, McCracken R, Avioli LV 1991 Effect of surgical menopause and estrogen replacement on cytokine release from human blood mononuclear cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:51345138.
  • 33
    Ahdjoudj S, Lasmoles F, Oyajobi BO, Lomri A, Delannoy P, Marie PJ 2001 Reciprocal control of osteoblast/chondroblast and osteoblast/adipocyte differentiation of multipotential clonal human marrow stromal F/STRO-1(+) cells. J Cell Biochem 81:2338.
  • 34
    Nuttall ME, Gimble JM 2000 Is there a therapeutic opportunity to either prevent or treat osteopenic disorders by inhibiting marrow adipogenesis? Bone 27:177184.
  • 35
    Ferrara N 2001 Role of vascular endothelial growth factor in regulation of physiological angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 380:C1358C1366.
  • 36
    Collin-Osdoby P, Rothe L, Anderson F, Nelson M, Maloney W, Osdoby P 2001 Receptor activator of NF-kappa B and osteoprotegerin expression by human microvascular endothelia cells, regulation by inflammatory cytokines, and role in human osteoclastogenesis. J Bio Chem 276:1065920672.
  • 37
    Lundberg P, Lundgren I, Mukohyama H, Lehenkari PP, Horton MA, Lerner UH 2001 Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtypes in mouse calvarial osteoblasts: Presence of VIP-2 receptors and differentiation-induced expression of VIP-1 receptors. Endocrinology 142:339347.
  • 38
    Lundberg P, Bostrom I, Mukohyama H, Bjurholm A, Smans K, Lerner UH 1999 Neuro-hormonal control of bone metabolism: Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates alkaline phosphatase activity and mRNA expression in mouse calvarial osteoblasts as well as calcium accumulation mineralized bone nodules. Regul Pept 85:4758.
  • 39
    Mitnick MA, Grey A, Masiukiewsicz U, Bartkiewicz M, Rios-Velez L, Friedman S, Xu L, Horwitz MC, Insogna K 2001 Parathyroid hormone induces hepatic production of bioactive interleukin-6 and its soluble receptor. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:E405E412.
  • 40
    Brown JP, Delmas PD, Malavel L, Edouard C, Chapuy MC, Meunier PJ 1984 Serum bone Gla-protein: A specific marker for bone formation in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Lancet i:10911093.
  • 41
    Meunier PJ, Sellami S, Briancon D, Edouard C 1990 Histological heterogeneity of apparently idiopathic osteoporosis. In: DelucaHF, FrostHM, JeeWSS, JohnstonCC, ParfittAM (eds.) Osteoporosis: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment. University Park Press, Baltimore, MD, USA, pp. 293301.
  • 42
    Oleksik A, Ott SM, Vedi S, Bravenboer N, Compston J, Lips P 2000 Bone structure in patients with low bone mineral density with or without vertebral fracture. J Bone Miner Res 15:13681375.
  • 43
    Eriksen EF, Hodgson SF, Eastell R, Cedel SL, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL 1990 Cancellous bone remodeling in type I (postmenopausal) osteoporosis: Quantitative assessment of rates of formation, resorption, and bone loss at tissue and cellular levels. J Bone Miner Res 5:311319.
  • 44
    Hordon LD, Raisi M, Aaron JE, Paxton SK, Beneton M, Kanis JA 2000 Trabecular architecture in women and men of similar bone mass with and without vertebral fracture: I. Two-dimensional histology Bone 27:271276.
  • 45
    Eastell R, Delmas PD, Hodgson SF, Eriksen EF, Mann KG, Riggs BL 1988 Bone formation rate in older normal women: Concurrent assessment with bone histomorphometry, calcium kinetics, and biochemical markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:741748.
  • 46
    Souberbielle JC, Cormier C, Kindermans C, Gao P, Cantor T, Forette F, Baulieu EE 2001 Vitamin D status and redefining serum parathyroid hormone reference range in the elderly J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:30863090.
  • 47
    Khosla S, Atkinson EJ, Melton LJ third, Riggs BL 1997 Effects of age and estrogen status on serum parathyroid hormone levels and biochemical markers of bone turnover in women: A population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:15221527.
  • 48
    Lips P 2001 Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: Consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications Endocr Rev 22:477501.
  • 49
    Weinreb M, Rodan GA, Thompson DD 1989 Osteopenia in the immobilized rat hind limb is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. Bone 10:187194.
  • 50
    Karlsson M, Bass S, Seeman E 2001 The evidence that exercise during growth or adulthood reduced the risk of fragility fractures is weak. Baillieres Best Pract Bes Clin Rheumatol 15:429450.
  • 51
    Riggs BL, Kholsa S, Melton LJ III 1998 A unitary model for involutional osteoporosis: Estrogen deficiency causes both type 1 and type 2 osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and contributes to bone loss in aging men. J Bon Miner Res 13:763773.