SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Lindsay R, Cosman F 1999 Estrogen. In: RosenCJ, GlowackiJ, BilezikianJP (eds.) The Aging Skeleton. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 495501.
  • 2
    Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Writing Group 1996 Effects of hormone therapy on bone mineral density: Results from the postmenopausal estrogen/progestin interventions (PEPI) trial. The Writing Group for the PEPI. JAMA 276:13891396.
  • 3
    Lufkin EG, Wahner HW, O'Fallon WM, Hodgson SF, Kotowicz MA, Lane AW, Judd HL, Caplan RH, Riggs BL 1992 Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with transdermal estrogen. Ann Intern Med 117:19.
  • 4
    Quigley ME, Martin PL, Burnier AM, Brooks P 1987 Estrogen therapy arrests bone loss in elderly women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156:15161523.
  • 5
    Komulainen M, Kroger H, Tuppurainen MT, Heikkinen AM, Alhava E, Honkanen R, Jurvelin J, Saarikoski S 1999 Prevention of femoral and lumbar bone loss with hormone replacement therapy and vitamin D3 in early postmenopausal women: A population-based 5-year randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:546552.
  • 6
    Cauley JA, Seeley DG, Ensrud K, Ettinger B, Black D, Cummings SR 1995 Estrogen replacement therapy and fractures in older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 122:916.
  • 7
    Naessen T, Persson I, Adami HO, Bergstrom R, Bergkvist L 1990 Hormone replacement therapy and the risk for first hip fracture. A prospective, population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med 113:95103.
  • 8
    Kiel DP, Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Wilson PW, Moskowitz MA 1987 Hip fracture and the use of estrogens in postmenopausal women. The Framingham Study. N Engl J Med 317:11691174.
  • 9
    Grady D, Rubin SM, Petitti DB, Fox CS, Black D, Ettinger B, Ernster VL, Cummings SR 1992 Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 117:10161037.
  • 10
    Bagi CM, Ammann P, Rizzoli R, Miller SC 1997 Effect of estrogen deficiency on cancellous and cortical bone structure and strength of the femoral neck in rats. Calcif Tissue Int 61:336344.
  • 11
    Wronski TJ, Lowry PL, Walsh CC, Ignaszewski LA 1985 Skeletal alterations in ovariectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 37:324328.
  • 12
    Wronski TJ, Cintron M, Doherty AL, Dann LM 1988 Estrogen treatment prevents osteopenia and depresses bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 123:681686.
  • 13
    Jiang Y, Zhao J, Genant HK, Dequeker J, Geusens P 1997 Long-term changes in bone mineral and biomechanical properties of vertebrae and femur in aging, dietary calcium restricted, and/or estrogen-deprived/-replaced rats. J Bone Miner Res 12:820831.
  • 14
    Lindsay R 1993 Hormone replacement therapy for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med 95:37S39S.
  • 15
    Beck T, Oreskovic T, Stone K, Ruff C, Ke E, Nevitt M, Cummings S 2001 Structural adaptation to changing skeletal load in the progression toward hip fragility: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 16:11081119.
  • 16
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Cauley JA, Genant HK, Mascioli SR, Scott JC, Seeley DG, Steiger P 1990 Appendicular bone density and age predict hip fracture in women. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. JAMA 263:6656688.
  • 17
    Beck TJ, Ruff CB, Warden KE, Scott WW, Rao GU 1990 Predicting femoral neck strength from bone mineral data: A structural approach. Invest Radiol 25:618.
  • 18
    Beck T, Looker A, Ruff C, Sievanen H, Wahner H 2000 Structural trends in the aging femoral neck and proximal shaft: Analysis of NHANES III DXA data. J Bone Miner Res 15:22972304.
  • 19
    Looker A, Beck T, Orwoll E 2001 Does body size account for gender differences in femur bone density and geometry? J Bone Miner Res 16:12911299.
  • 20
    Nelson D, Barondess D, Hendrix S, Beck T 2000 Cross-sectional geometry, bone strength, and bone mass in the proximal femur in African-American and white postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 15:19921997.
  • 21
    Mourtada F, Beck T, Hauser D, Ruff C, Bao G 1996 A curved beam model of the proximal femur for estimating stress using DXA derived structural geometry. J. Orthop Res 14:483492.
  • 22
    Young W 1989 Elastic stability formulas for stress and strain. In: CrawfordH, ThomasS (ed.) Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, p. 688.
  • 23
    Lindsay R, Cosman F 1992 Osteoporosis: The estrogen relationship. In: SwartzDP (ed.) Hormone Replacement Therapy. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, USA, pp. 1764.
  • 24
    Frost H 1987 The mechanostat: A proposed pathogenic mechanism of osteoporoses and the bone mass effects of mechanical and nonmechanical agents. Bone Miner 2:7385.
  • 25
    Burr DR 1997 Muscle strength, bone mass, and age-related bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 12:15471551.
  • 26
    Frost HM 1999 On the estrogen-bone relationship and postmenopausal bone loss: A new model. J Bone Miner Res 14:14731477.
  • 27
    Van Der Meulen MC, Beaupre GS, Carter DR 1993 Mechanobiologic influences in long bone cross-sectional growth. Bone 14:635642.
  • 28
    Bell KL, Loveridge N, Power J, Garrahan N, Stanton M, Lunt M, Meggitt BF, Reeve J 1999 Structure of the femoral neck in hip fracture: Cortical bone loss in the inferoanterior to superoposterior axis. J Bone Miner Res 14:111119.
  • 29
    Crabtree N, Loveridge N, Parker M, Rushton N, Power J, Beck T, Reeve J 2001 Intracapsular hip fracture and the region specific loss of cortical bone: Analysis by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). J Bone Miner Res 16:13181328.