• 1
    Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ III 1998 A unitary model for involutional osteoporosis: Estrogen deficiency causes both type I and type II osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and contributes to bone loss in aging men. J Bone Miner Res 13:763773.
  • 2
    Melton LJ III 1999 Epidemiology of fractures. In: OrwollE (ed.) Osteoporosis in Men. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 113.
  • 3
    Kanis JA, Melton LJ III, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N 1994 The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9:11371141.
  • 4
    Gilsanz V, Boechat MI, Gilsanz R, Loro ML, Roe TF, Goodman WG 1994 Gender differences in vertebral sizes in adults: Biomechanical implications. Radiology 190:678682.
  • 5
    Gilsanz V, Loro ML, Roe TF, Sayre J, Gilsanz R, Schulz EE 1995 Vertebral size in elderly women with osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 95:23322337.
  • 6
    Ebbesen EN, Thomsen JS, Beck-Nielsen H, Nepper-Rasmussen HJ, Mosekilde L 1999 Age- and gender-related differences in vertebral bone mass, density, and strength. J Bone Miner Res 14:13941403.
  • 7
    Riggs BL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Mazess RB, Offord KP, Melton LJ III 1981 Differential changes in bone mineral density of the appendicular and axial skeleton with aging: Relationship to spinal osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 67:328335.
  • 8
    Aaron JE, Makins NB, Sagreiy K 1987 The microanatomy of trabecular bone loss in normal aging men and women. Clin Orthop 215:260271.
  • 9
    Ebbesen EN, Thomsen JS, Mosekilde L 1997 Nondestructive determination of iliac crest cancellous bone strength by pQCT. Bone 21:535540.
  • 10
    Duan Y, Turner CH, Kim B-T, Seeman E 2001 Sexual dimorphism in vertebral fragility is more the result of gender differences in age-related bone gain than bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 16:22672275.
  • 11
    Biggemann M, Hilweg D, Brinckmann P 1988 Prediction of the compressive strength of vertebral bodies of the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography. Skeletal Radiol 17:264269.
  • 12
    Hayes W, Piazza S, Zysset P 1991 Biomechanics of fracture risk prediction of the hip and the spine by quantitative computed tomography. Radiol Clin North Am 29:118.
  • 13
    Myers ER, Wilson SE 1997 Biomechanics of osteoporosis and vertebral fracture. Spine 22:25S31S.
  • 14
    Peel NFA, Eastell R 1994 Diagnostic value of estimated volumetric bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9:317320.
  • 15
    Tabensky AD, Williams J, Deluca V, Brigant E, Seeman E 1996 Bone mass, areal and volumetric bone density are equally accurate, sensitive, and specific surrogates of the breaking strength of the vertebral body: An in vitro study. J Bone Miner Res 11:19811988.
  • 16
    Ikeda ER, Schenkman ML, Riley PO, Hodge WA 1991 Influence of age on dynamics of rising from a chair. Phys Ther 71:473481.
  • 17
    Schultz AB, Andersson GJ 1981 Analysis of loads on the lumbar spine. Spine 6:7682.
  • 18
    Vesterby A, Mosekilde L, Gundersen JHG, Melsen F, Mosekilde L, Holme K, Sorensen S 1991 Biologically meaningful determinants of the in vitro strength of lumbar vertebrae. Bone 12:219224.
  • 19
    Turner CH 1996 Measurement of bone quality in rats. Bone 19:7374.
  • 20
    Dolan P, Adams MA 1993 The relationship between EMG activity and extensor moment generation in the erector spinal muscles during bending and lifting activities. J Biomech 26:513522.
  • 21
    Karlsson KM, Duan Y, Ahlborg H, Obrant KJ, Johnell O, Seeman E 2001 Age, gender and fragility fractures are associated with differences in quantitative ultrasound independent of bone mineral density. Bone 28::118122.