SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Parfitt AM 1991 Growth hormone and adult bone remodelling. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 35::467470.
  • 2
    Tylkowski CM, Wezeman H, Ray RD 1976 Hormonal effects on the morphology of bone defect healing. Clin Orthop 115:274285.
  • 3
    Harris WH, Heaney RP 1969 Effect of growth hormone on skeletal mass in adult dogs Nature 223:403404.
  • 4
    Inzucchi S, Robbins R 1994 Effects of GH on human bone biology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:691694.
  • 5
    Velasco B, Cacicedo L, Escalada J, Lopez-Fernandez J, Sanchez-Franco F 1998 Growth hormone gene expression and secretion in aging rats is age dependent and not age-associated weight increase related. Endocrinology 139:13141320.
  • 6
    Frost HM 1998 Could some biomechanical effects of growth hormone help to explain its effects on bone formation and resorption? Bone 23:395398.
  • 7
    Forwood MR, Burr DB 1993 Physical Activity and bone mass: Exercises in futility? Bone Miner 21:89112.
  • 8
    Rubin CT, Bain SD, McLeod KJ 1992 Suppression of the osteogenic response in the aging skeleton. Calcif Tissue Int 50:306313.
  • 9
    Turner CH, Takano Y, Owan I 1995 Aging changes mechanical loading thresholds for bone formation in rats. J Bone Miner Res 10:15441549.
  • 10
    Nilsson A, Carlsson B, Isgaard J, Isaksson OGP, Rymo L 1990 Regulation by GH of IGF-I mRNA expression in rat epiphyseal growth plate as studied by in-situ hybridisation. J Endocrinol 125:6774.
  • 11
    Li H, Bartold PM, Zhang CZ, Clarkson RW, Young WG, Waters MJ 1998 Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I induce bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4: A mediator role in bone and tooth formation? Endocrinology 139:38553862.
  • 12
    Mathews LS, Norstedt G, Palmiter RD 1986 Regulation of IGF-I gene expression by growth hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:93439347.
  • 13
    Joseph BK, Savage NW, Young WG, Gupta GS, Breier BH, Waters MJ 1993 Expression and regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I in the rat incisor. Growth Factors 8:267275.
  • 14
    Lean JM, Jagger CJ, Chambers TJ, Chow JWM 1994 Increased IGF-I mRNA expression in osteocytes precedes the increase in bone formation in response to mechanical loading. Am J Physiol 268(Endocrinol Metab 31):E318E327.
  • 15
    Charlton H, Clark R, Robinson I, Goff AE, Cox BS, Bugnon C, Bloch BA 1988 Growth hormone deficient dwarfism in the rat: A new mutation. J Endocrinol 119:5158.
  • 16
    Wyse B, Waters MJ, Sernia C 1993 Stimulation of RAS by growth hormone in Lewis dwarf rats. Am J Physiol 265:E332E339.
  • 17
    Forwood MR, Bennett MB, Blowers AR, Nadorfi RL 1998 Modification of the in vivo four point loading model for studying mechanically induced bone formation. Bone 23:307310.
  • 18
    Turner CH, Forwood MR, Rho J-Y, Yoshikawa T 1994 Mechanical strain thresholds for lamellar and woven bone formation, J Bone Miner Res 9:8797.
  • 19
    Forwood MR 1996 Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) mediates the induction of bone formation by mechanical loading in vivo. J Bone Miner Res 11:16881693.
  • 20
    Forwood MR, Owan I, Takano Y, Turner CH 1996 Increased bone formation in rat tibiae after a single short period of dynamic loading in vivo. Am J Physiol 270(Endocrinol Metab33):E419E423.
  • 21
    Vikman K, Isgaard J, Eden SJ 1991 Growth hormone regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA in rat adipose tissue and isolated rat adipocytes. J Endocrinol 131::139145.
  • 22
    Halloran BP, Bikle DD, Harris J, Autrey CP, Currier PA, Tanner S, Patterson-Buckendahl P, Morey-Holten E 1995 Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone. J Bone Miner Res 10:11681171.
  • 23
    Akhter MP, Raab DM, Turner CH, Kimmel DB, Recker RR 1992 Characterisation of in vivo strain in rat tibia during external application of four-point bending load. J Biomech 25:12411246.
  • 24
    Turner CH, Akhter MP, Raab DM, Kimmel DB, Recker RR 1991 A non-invasive in vivo model for studying strain adaptive bone modelling. Bone 12:7379.
  • 25
    Turner CH, Takano Y, Owan I 1995 Aging changes mechanical loading thresholds for bone formation in rats. J Bone Miner Res 10:15441549.
  • 26
    Joldersma M, Burger EH, Semeins CM, Klein-Nulend J 2000 Mechanical stress induces COX-2 mRNA expression in bone cells from elderly women. J Biomech 33:5361.
  • 27
    Argetsinger LS, Carter-Su C 1996 Mechanism of signalling by growth hormone receptor. Physiol Rev 76:10891107.
  • 28
    Le Roith D, Werner H, Beitner-Johnson D, Roberts CT 1995 Molecular and cellular aspects of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor. Endocr Rev 16:143163.
  • 29
    Waters MJ, Shang CA, Behncken SN, Tam SP, Li H, Shen B, Lobie PE 1999 Growth hormone as a cytokine. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 26:760764.
  • 30
    Chen NX, Ryder KD, Pavalko FM, Turner CH, Burr DB, Qiu J, Duncan RL 2000 Ca(2+) regulates fluid shear-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and gene expression in osteoblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 278:C989C997.
  • 31
    Eriksson H, Sundler R, Donner J 1990 Growth hormone increases phosphoinositide turnover in rat adipocytes that are sensitive to the insulin-like action of the hormone. Mol Cell Biochem 97:181186.
  • 32
    Ilondo M, Demeyts M, Bouchelouche P, 1994 Human growth hormone increases cytosolic free calcium in cultured human IM-9 lymphocytes: A novel mechanism of growth hormone transmembrane signalling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 202:391397.
  • 33
    Young WG, Zhang CZ, Li H, Osborne P, Waters MJ 1992 The influence of growth hormone on cell proliferation in odontogenic epithelia by bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry and morphometry in the Lewis dwarf rat. J Dent Res 71:18071811.
  • 34
    Young WG, Zhang CZ, Li H, Lobie PE, Waters M 1993 A bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry and morphometric study of the influence of growth hormone on cell proliferation in odontogenic mesenchyme of the Lewis dwarf rat. Arch Oral Biol 38:207214.
  • 35
    Oxlund H, Andersen NB, Ortoft G, Orskov H, Andreassen TT 1998 Growth hormone and mild exercise in combination markedly enhance cortical bone formation and strength in old rats. Endocrinology 139:18991904.
  • 36
    Yeh JK, Aloia JF, Chen M 1994 Growth hormone administration potentiates the effect of treadmill exercise on long bone formation, but not on the vertebrae in middle-aged rats. Calcif Tissue Int 54:3843.
  • 37
    Gibney J, Wallace JD, Spinks T, Schnorr L, Ranicar A, Cuneo RC, Lockhart S, Burnand KG, Salomon F, Sonksen PH, Russell-Jones D 1999 The effects of 10 years of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) in adult GH-deficient patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:25962602.
  • 38
    Rosen CJ 2000 Growth hormone and aging. Endocrine 12:197201.