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Keywords:

  • risk factors;
  • hip fracture;
  • calcium intake;
  • alcohol consumption;
  • cigarette smoking;
  • physical activity

Abstract

The objectives of the Asian Osteoporosis Study (AOS) were to determine risk factors for hip fracture in men and women in four Asian countries, that is, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines. A total of 451 men and 725 women (aged 50 years and over) with hip fractures were compared with an equal number of community controls. A standardized questionnaire was administered by interview. The following relative risks (RRs) were found in women and men by multiple logistic regression: dietary calcium intake < 498 mg/day, 2.0 for women (95% CI, 1.5–2.8) and 1.5 for men (95% CI, 1.0–2.2); no load bearing activity in the immediate past, 2.0 for women (95% CI, 1.4–2.7) and 3.4 for men (95% CI, 2.3–5.1); no vigorous sport activities in young adulthood, 7.2 for women (95% CI, 4.0–13.0) and 2.4 for men (95% CI, 1.6–3.6); cigarette smoking, 1.5 for men (95% CI, 1.0–2.1); alcohol consumption 7 days a week, 2.9 for women (95% CI, 1.0–8.6) and 1.9 for men (95% CI, 1.1–3.2); fell twice or more in the last 12 months, 3.0 for women (95% CI, 1.8–4.8) and 3.4 for men (95% CI, 1.8–6.6); a history of fractures after 50 years of age, 1.8 for women (95% CI, 1.1–2.9) and 3.0 for men (95% CI, 1.6–5.6); a history of stroke, 3.8 for women (95% CI, 2.0–7.1) and 3.6 for men (95% CI, 1.8–7.1); use of sedatives, 2.5 for women (95% CI, 1.0–6.3) and 3.0 for men (95% CI, 1.0–9.7); and use of thyroid drugs, 7.1 for women (95% CI, 2.0–25.9) and 11.8 for men (95% CI, 1.3–106.0). Women who were 1.56 m or taller had an RR of 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3–3.0) for hip fracture and men who were 1.69 m or taller had an RR of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2–3.1) for hip fracture. Based on these findings, primary preventive programs for hip fracture could be planned in Asia.