SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Dunn WL, Wahner HW 1994 Commercial instruments available for bone mineral measurements. In: WahnerHW, FogelmanI (eds.) The Evolution of Osteoporosis: Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Clinical Practice. Martin Dunitz, Ltd., London, UK, pp. 3548.
  • 2
    Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Brown ML, Morin RL, Riggs BL 1988 Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral measurements of the lumbar spine. Mayo Clin Proc 63:10751084.
  • 3
    Genant HK, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Gluer C-C, Grampf S, Harris ST, Jergas M, Lang T, Lu Ying, Majumdar S, Mathur A, Takada M 1996 Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral and structure: State of the art. J Bone Miner Res 11:707730.
  • 4
    Jergas M, Breitenseher M, Gluer C-C, Yu W, Genant HK 1995 Estimates of volumetric bone density from projectional measurements improve the discriminatory capability of dual X-ray absorptiometry. J Bone Miner Res 10:11011110.
  • 5
    Ravn P, Cizza G, Bjarnason NH, Thompson F, Daley M, Wasnich RD, McClung M, Hosking D, Yates AJ, Christiansen C, for the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) Study Group 1999 Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 14:16221627.
  • 6
    Hansen MA, Overgaard K, Riis BJ, Christiansen C 1991 Role of peak bone mass and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 12 year study. BMJ 303:961964.
  • 7
    Hui SL, Slemenda CW, Johnston CC 1989 Baseline measurement of bone mass predicts fracture in white women. Ann Intern Med 111:355361.
  • 8
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H 1996 Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. BMJ 312:12541259.
  • 9
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner W, Cauley J, Ensrud K, Genant HK, Palermo L, Scott J, Vogt TM, for the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group 1993 Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures Lancet 341:7275.
  • 10
    Lochmüller E-M, Eckstein F, Kaiser D, Zeller JB, Landgraf J, Putz R, Steldinger R 1998 Prediction of vertebral failure loads from spinal and femoral dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and calcaneal ultrasound: An in situ analysis with intact soft tissue. Bone 23:417424.
  • 11
    Bouxsein ML, Coan BS, Lee SC 1999 Prediction of the strength of the elderly proximal femur by bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound measurements of the heel and tibia. Bone 25:4954.
  • 12
    Courtney AC, Wachtel EF, Myers ER, Hayes WC 1994 Effects of loading rate on strength of the proximal femur. Calcif Tissue Int 55:5358.
  • 13
    Courtney AC, Wachtel EF, Myers ER, Hayes WC 1995 Age-related reductions in the strength of the femur tested in a fall-loading configuration. J Bone Joint Surg Am 77:387395.
  • 14
    Pinilla TP, Boardman KC, Bouxsein ML, Myers ER, Hayes WC 1996 Impact direction from a fall influences the failure load of the proximal femur as much as age-related bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int 58:231235.
  • 15
    Bouxsein ML, Courtney AC, Hayes WC 1995 Ultrasound and densitometry of the calcaneus correlate with the failure loads of cadaveric femurs. Calcif Tissue Int 56:99103.
  • 16
    Cheng XG, Lowet G, Boonen S, Nicholson PHF, Brys P, Nus J, Dequeker J 1997 Assessment of the strength of proximal femur in vitro: Relationship to femoral bone mineral density and femoral geometry. Bone 20:213218.
  • 17
    Bjarnason K, Hassager C, Svendsen OL, Stang H, Christiansen C 1996 Anteroposterior and lateral spinal DXA for the assessment of vertebral body strength: Comparison with hip and forearm measurement. Osteoporos Int 6:3742.
  • 18
    Kiel DP, Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Wilson PWF, Moskowitz MA 1987 Hip fracture and the use of estrogens in postmenopausal women: The Framingham Study. N Engl J Med 317:11691174.
  • 19
    Riggs BL, Hodgson SF, O'Fallon WM, Chao EYS, Wahner HW, Muhs JM, Cedel SL, Melton LJ III 1990 Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 322:802809.
  • 20
    Lufkin EG, Wahner HW, O'Fallon WM, Hodgson SF, Kotowicz MA, Lane AW, Judd HL, Caplan RH, Riggs BL 1992 Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with transdermal estrogen. Ann Intern Med 117:19.
  • 21
    Liberman UA, Weiss SR, Broll J, Minne HW, Quan H, Bell NH, Rodriguez-Portales J, Downs RW Jr, Dequeker J, Favus M, Seeman E, Recker RR, Capizzi T, Santora AC, Lombardi A, Shah RV, Hirsch LJ, Karpf DB, for the Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group 1995 Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 333:14371443.
  • 22
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Nevitt MC, Bauer DC, Genant HK, Haskell WL, Marcus R, Ott SM, Torner JC, Quandt SA, Reiss TF, Ensrud KE, for the Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group 1996 Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Lancet 348:15351541.
  • 23
    Hosking D, Chilver CED, Christiansen C, Pavn P, Wasnich R, Ross P, McClung M, Balske A, Thompson D, Daley M, Yates J, for the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group 1998 Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. N Engl J Med 338:485492.
  • 24
    Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH, Knickerbocker RK, Nickelsen T, Genant HK, Christiansen C, Delmas PD, Sanchetta JR, Stakkestad J, Gluer C-C, Krueger K, Cohen FJ, Eckert S, Ensrud KE, Avioli LV, Lips P, Cummings SR, for the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators 1999 Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with Raloxifene: Results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. JAMA 282:637645.
  • 25
    Eastell R 1998 Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 338:736746.
  • 26
    Meunier PJ 1999 Evidence-based medicine and osteoporosis: A comparison of fracture risk reduction data from osteoporosis randomised clinical trials. Int J Clin Practice 53:122129.
  • 27
    Bauer DC, Gluer CC, Genant HK, Stone K 1995 Quantitative ultrasound and vertebral fracture in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 10:353358.
  • 28
    Cheng XG, Nicholson PHF, Boonen S, Lowet G, Brys P, Aerssens J, Van Der Perre G, Dequeker J 1997 Prediction of vertebral strength in vitro by spinal bone densitometry and calcaneal ultrasound. J Bone Miner Res 10:17211728.
  • 29
    Chapuy MC, Ariot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ 1992 Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 327:16371642.
  • 30
    Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, Applegate WB, Barrett-Connoner EA, Musliner TA, Palermo L, Prineas R, Rubin SM, Scott JC, Vogt T, Wallace R, Yates AJ, LaCroix AZ, for the Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group 1998 Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures. JAMA 280:20772082.
  • 31
    Faulkner KG 2000 Bone matters: Are density increases necessary to reduce fracture risk? J Bone Miner Res 15:183187.
  • 32
    Webber CE 1987 The effect of fat on bone mineral measurements in normal subjects with recommend values of bone, muscle, and fat attenuation coefficients. Clin Phys Physiol Meas 8:143148.
  • 33
    Farrell TJ, Webber CE 1989 The error due to fat inhomogeneity in lumbar spine bone mineral measurements. Clin Phys Physiol Meas 10:5764.
  • 34
    Sorenson JA 1990 Effects of nonmineral tissues on measurements of bone mineral content by dual-photon absorptiometry. Med Phys 17:7784.
  • 35
    Tothill P, Avenell A, Reid RM 1994 Precision and accuracy of measurements of whole-body bone mineral comparisons between Hologic, Lunar and Norland dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers. Br J Radiol 67:12101217.
  • 36
    Kuiper JW, Van Kuijk C, Grashius JL, Ederveen AGH, Schutte HE 1996 Accuracy and influence of marrow fat on quantitative CT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of the femoral neck in vitro. Osteoporos Int 6:2530.
  • 37
    Antonacci MD, Hanson DS, Hegeness MH 1996 Pitfalls in the measurement of bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spine 21:8791.
  • 38
    Bolotin HH 1998 Analytic and quantitative exposition of patient-specific systematic inaccuracies inherent in planar DXA-derived in vivo BMD measurements. Med Phys 25:139151.
  • 39
    Bolotin HH 1998 A new perspective on the causal influence of soft tissue composition on DXA-measured in vivo bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 13:17391746.
  • 40
    Bolotin HH, Sievänen H, Grashius JL, Kuiper JW, Järvinen TLN 2001 Inaccuracies inherent in patient-specific DXA bone mineral density measurements: Comprehensive phantom-based evaluation. J Bone Miner Res 16:417426.
  • 41
    Bolotin HH 2001 Inaccuracies inherent in DXA in vivo bone mineral densitometry may flaw osteopenic/osteoporotic interpretations and mislead assessments of anti-resorptive therapy effectiveness. Bone (in press)
  • 42
    Svendsen OL, Hassager C, Skodt V, Christiansen C 1995 Impact of soft tissue on in vivo accuracy of bone mineral measurements in the spine, hip, and forearm: A human cadaver study. J Bone Miner Res 10:868873.
  • 43
    Compston JE, Laskey MA, Croucher PI, Coxon A, Dreitzman S 1992 Effect of diet-induced weight loss on total body bone mass. Clin Sci 82:429432.
  • 44
    Reid IR, Ames R, Evans MC, Sharpe S, Gamble G, France JT, Lim TM, Cundy TF 1992 Determinants of total body regional bone mineral density in normal postmenopausal women—a key role for fat mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:4551.
  • 45
    Reid IR, Plank LD, Evans MC 1992 Fat mass is an important determinant of whole body bone density in premenopausal women but not in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:770782.
  • 46
    Compston JE, Bhambhani M, Laskey MA, Murphy S, Khaw KT 1992 Body composition and bone mass in postmenopausal women J Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 37:426431.
  • 47
    Reid IR, Ames R, Evans MC, Sharpe SJ, Gamble GD 1994 Determinants of the rate of bone loss in normal postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:950954.
  • 48
    Reid IR, Evans MC, Ames RW 1994 Volumetric bone density of the lumbar spine is related to fat mass but not lean mass in normal postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 4:362367.
  • 49
    Aloia JR, Vaswani A, Ma R, Flaster E 1995 To what extent is bone mass determined by fat-free or fat-mass? Am J Clin Nutr 61:11101123.
  • 50
    Salamone LM, Glynn N, Black D, Epstein RS, Palermo L, Meilahn E, Kuller LH, Cauley JA 1995 Body composition and bone mineral density in premenopausal and early perimenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 10:17621768.
  • 51
    Glynn NW, Meilahn EN, Charron M, Anderson SJ, Kuller LH, Cauley JA 1995 Determinants of bone mineral density in older men. J Bone Miner Res 10:17691777.
  • 52
    Salamone LM, Cauley JA, Black DM, Simkin-Silverman L, Lang W, Gregg E, Palermo L, Epstein RS, Kuller LH, Wing R 1999 Effect of a lifestyle intervention on bone mineral density in premenopausal women: A randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 70:97103.
  • 53
    Custer RP 1974 Chapter 2: An Atlas of the Blood and Bone Marrow. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 3342.
  • 54
    Minaire P, Edouarde C, Arlot M, Meunier PJ 1984 Marrow changes in paraplegic patients. Calcif Tissue Int 36:338340.
  • 55
    Glowacki J 1995 Influence of age on human marrow. Calcif Tissue Int 35(Suppl 1):S50S51.
  • 56
    Ricci C, Cova M, Kang YS, Yang A, Rohmouni A, Scott WW, Zerhouni EA 1990 Normal age-related pattern of cellular and fatty bone marrow distribution in the axial skeleton: MR imaging study. Radiology 177:8388.