• 1
    Basilico C, Moscatelli D 1992 The FGF family of growth factors and oncogenes. Adv Cancer Res 59:115165.
  • 2
    Jaye M, Schlessinger J, Dionne CA 1992 Fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases: Molecular analysis and signal transduction. Biochem Biophys Acta 1135:185199.
  • 3
    Johnson DE, Williams LT 1993 Structural and functional diversity in the FGF receptor multigene family. Adv Cancer Res 60:141.
  • 4
    Wang JK, Gao G, Goldfarb M 1994 Fibroblast growth factor receptors have different signaling and mitogenic potentials. Mol Cell Biol 14:181188.
  • 5
    Amaya E, Musci TJ, Kirscher MW 1991 Expression of a dominant negative mutant of the FGF receptor disrupts mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos. Cell 66:257270.
  • 6
    Tang TL, Freeman RM, O'Reilly AM, Neel BG, Sokol SY 1995 The SH2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase SH-PTP2 is required upstream of MAP kinase for early Xenopus development. Cell 80:473483.
  • 7
    Cano E, Mahadevan LC 1995 Parallel signal processing among mammalian MAPKs. Trends Biochem Sci 20:117122.
  • 8
    Kuo WL, Chung KC, Rosner MR 1997 Differentiation of central nervous system neuronal cells by fibroblast-derived growth factor requires at least two signaling pathways: Roles for Ras and Src. Mol Cell Biol 17:46334643.
  • 9
    Zhan X, Plourde C, Hu X, Friesel R, Maciag T 1994 Association of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 with c-Src correlates with association between c-Src and cortactin. J Biol Chem 269:2022120224.
  • 10
    Maher P 1999 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is required for fibroblast growth factor-2-stimulated cell proliferation but not differentiation. J Biol Chem 274:1749117498.
  • 11
    Burgess WH, Dionne CA, Kaplow J, Mudd R, Friesel R, Zilberstein A, Schlessinger J, Jaye M 1990 Characterization and cDNA cloning of phospholipase C-gamma, a major substrate for heparin-binding growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)-activated tyrosine kinase. Mol Cell Biol 10:47704777.
  • 12
    Nishizuka Y 1986 Studies and perspectives of protein kinase C. Science 233:305312.
  • 13
    Nishizuka Y 1992 Intracellular signaling by hydrolysis of phospholipids and activation of protein kinase C. Science 258:607614.
  • 14
    Newton AC 1995 Protein kinase C: Structure, function, and regulation. J Biol Chem 270:2849528498.
  • 15
    Shih SC, Mullen A, Abrams K, Mukhopadhyay D, Claffey KP 1999 Role of protein kinase C isoforms in phorbol ester-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human glioblastoma cells. J Biol Chem 274:1540715414.
  • 16
    Brodie C, Bogi K, Acs P, Lazarovici P, Petrovics G, Anderson WB, Blumberg PM 1999 Protein kinase C-epsilon plays a role in neurite outgrowth in response to epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor in PC12 cells. Cell Growth Differ 10:183191.
  • 17
    Corbit KC, Foster DA, Rosner MR 1999 Protein kinase Cdelta mediates neurogenic but not mitogenic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in neuronal cells. Mol Cell Biol 19:42094218.
  • 18
    Hurley MM, Florkiewitz RZ 1996 Fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors families. In: BilezikianJP, RaiszLG, RodanGA (eds.) Principles of Bone Biology. Academic Press, Boston, MA, USA, pp. 627646.
  • 19
    Cohen MM 1997 Transforming growth factor beta and fibroblast growth factors and their receptors: Role in sutural biology and craniosynostosis. J Bone Miner Res 12:322330.
  • 20
    Marie PJ, Debiais F, Lomri A, Lemonnier J 2000 Fibroblast growth factors and osteogenesis. In: Canalis, E (ed.) Skeletal Growth Factors. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 179196.
  • 21
    Muenke M, Schell U 1995 Fibroblast-growth-factor receptor mutations in human skeletal disorders. Trends Genet 11:308313.
  • 22
    Wilkie AO, Morriss-Kay GM, Jones EY, Heath JK 1995 Functions of fibroblast growth factors and their receptors. Curr Biol 5:500507.
  • 23
    Park WJ, Theda C, Maestri NE, Meyers GA, Fryburg JS, Dufresne C, Cohen MM 1995 Analysis of phenotypic features and FGFR2 mutations in Apert syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 57:321328.
  • 24
    Wilkie AO, Slaney SF, Oldridge M, Poole MD, Asworth GJ, Hockley AD, Hayward RD, David D, Pulleyn LJ, Rutland P, Malcom S, Winter RM, Reardon W 1995 Apert syndrome results from localized mutations of FGFR2 and is allelic with Crouzon syndrome. Nat Genet 9:165172.
  • 25
    Neilson KM, Friesel RE 1995 Constitutive activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 by a point mutation associated with Crouzon syndrome. J Biol Chem 270:2603726040.
  • 26
    Galvin BD, Hart KC, Meyer AN, Webster MK, Donoghue DJ 1996 Constitutive receptor activation by Crouzon syndrome mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)2 and FGFR2/Neu chimeras. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:78947899.
  • 27
    Webster MK, Donoghue DJ 1997 FGFR activation in skeletal disorders: Too much of a good thing. Trends Genet 13:178182.
  • 28
    Anderson J, Burns HD, Enriquez-Harris P, Wilkie AO, Heath JK 1998 Apert syndrome mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 exhibit increased affinity for FGF ligand. Hum Mol Genet 7:14751483.
  • 29
    De Pollak C, Renier D, Hott M, Marie PJ 1996 Increased bone formation and osteoblastic cell phenotype in premature cranial suture ossification (craniosynostosis). J Bone Miner Res 11:401407.
  • 30
    Lomri A, Lemonnier J, Hott M, de Perseval N, Lajeunie E, Munnich A, Renier D, Marie PJ 1998 Increased calvaria cell differentiation and bone matrix formation induced by fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutations in Apert syndrome. J Clin Invest 101:13101317.
  • 31
    Lemonnier J, Hott M, Delannoy P, Lomri A, Modrowski D, Marie PJ 2000 The Ser252 Trp fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2) mutation induces PKC-independent downregulation of FGFR-2 associated with premature calvaria osteoblast differentiation. Exp Cell Res 256:158167.
  • 32
    Gumbiner BM 1996 Cell adhesion: The molecular basis of tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Cell 84:345357.
  • 33
    Takeichi M 1990 Cadherins: A molecular family important in selective cell-cell adhesion. Annu Rev Biochem 59:237252.
  • 34
    Lee YS, Chuong CM 1992 Adhesion molecules in skeletogenesis: I. Transient expression of neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) in osteoblasts during endochondral and intramembranous ossification. J Bone Miner Res 7:14351446.
  • 35
    Okazaki M, Takeshita S, Kawai S, Kikuno R, Tsujimursa A, Kudo A, Amann E 2098 1994 Molecular cloning and characterization of OB-cadherin, a new member of cadherin family expressed in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem 269:1209212101.
  • 36
    Cheng SL, Lecanda F, Davidson MK, Warlow PM, Zhang SF, Zhang L, Suzuki S, St John T, Civitelli R 1998 Human osteoblasts express a repertoire of cadherins, which are critical for BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation. J Bone Miner Res 13:633644.
  • 37
    Ferrari SL, Traianedes K, Thorne M, Lafage-Proust M-H, Genever P, Cecchini MG, Behard V, Bisello A, Rosenblatt M, Suva LJ 2000 A role for N-cadherin in the development of the differentiated osteoblastic phenotype. J Bone Miner Res 15:198208.
  • 38
    Hay E, Lemonnier J, Modrowski D, Lomri A, Lasmoles F, Marie PJ 2000 N- and E-cadherin mediate early human calvaria osteoblast differentiation promoted by bone morphogenetic protein-2. J Cell Physiol 183:117128.
  • 39
    Tamaoki T, Nakano H 1990 Potent and specific inhibitors of protein kinase C of microbial origin. Biotechnology 8:732735.
  • 40
    Alessi DR, Cuenda P, Cohen DT, Dudley DT, Saltiel AR 1995 PD 098059 is a specific inhibitor of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 270:2748927494.
  • 41
    Kramer RM, Roberts EF, Um SL, Borsh-Haubold AG, Watson SP, Fisher MJ, Jakubowski JA 1996 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Evidence that proline-directed phosphorylation is not required for mobilization of arachidonic acid by cPLA2. J Biol Chem 271:2772327729.
  • 42
    Martiny-Baron G, Kazanietz MG, Mischak H, Blumberg PM, Kochs G, Hug H, Marmé D, Schächtele C 1993 Selective inhibition of protein kinase C isozymes by the indolocarbazole Go 6976. J Biol Chem 268:91949197.
  • 43
    Wang D, Yu X, Brecher P 1998 Nitric oxide and N-acetylcysteine inhibit the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by angiotensin II in rat cardiac fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 273:3302733034.
  • 44
    Lomri A, Fromigué O, Hott M, Marie PJ 1999 Genomic insertion of the SV-40 large T oncogene in normal adult human trabecular osteoblastic cells induces cell growth without loss of the differentiated phenotype. Calcif Tissue Int 64:394401.
  • 45
    Poliard D, Lamblin D, Marie PJ, Buc-Caron MH, Kellerman O 1993 Commitment of the teratocarcinoma-derived mesodermal clone C1 towards terminal osteogenic differentiation. J Cell Sci 106:503512.
  • 46
    Hamaguchy M, Matsuyoshi N, Ohnishi Y, Gotoh B, Takeichi M, Nagai Y 1993 p60v-src causes tyrosine phosphorylation and inactivation of the N-cadherin-catenin cell adhesion system. EMBO J 12:307317.
  • 47
    Machwate M, Julienne A, Moukhtar M, Lomri A, Marie PJ 1995 c-fos protooncogene is involved in the mitogenic effect of transforming growth factor-beta in osteoblastic cells. Mol Endocrinol 9:187198.
  • 48
    Suzuki A, Palmer G, Bonjour J-P, Caverzasio J 1999 Regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity by p38 MAP kinase in response to activation of Gi protein-coupled receptors by epinephrine in osteoblast-like cells. Endocrinology 140:31773182.
  • 49
    Chen SJ, Klann E, Gower MC, Powell CM, Sessoms JS, Sweatt JD 1993 Studies with synthetic peptide substrates derived from the neuronal protein neurogranin reveal structural determinants of potency and selectivity for protein kinase C. Biochemistry 32:10321039.
  • 50
    Aplin AE, Howe A, Alahari SK, Juliano RL 1998 Signal transduction and signal modulation by cell adhesion receptors: The role of integrins, cadherins, immunoglobulin-cell adhesion molecules, and selectins. Pharmacol Rev 50:197263.
  • 51
    Rotenberg SA, Huang MH, Zhu J, Su L, Riedel H 1995 Deletion analysis of protein kinase C inactivation by calphostin C. Mol Carcinog 12:4249.
  • 52
    Fragale A, Tartaglia M, Bernardini S, Michela Di Stasi AM, Di Rocco C, Velardi F, Teti A, Battaglia PA, Migliacco S 1999 Decreased proliferation and altered differentiation in osteoblasts from genetically and clinically distinct craniosynostotic disorders. Am J Pathol 154:14651477.
  • 53
    Civitelli R 1995 Cell-cell communication in bone. Calcif Tissue Int 56:S29S31.
  • 54
    Sanders JL, Stern PH 1996 Expression and phorbol ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C isozymes in osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res 11:18621872.
  • 55
    Cazaubon S, Bornancin F, Parker PJ 1994 Threonine-497 is a critical site for permissive activation of protein kinase C alpha. Biochem J 301:443448.
  • 56
    Bornancin F, Parker PJ 1997 Phosphorylation of protein kinase C-alpha on serine 657 controls the accumulation of active enzyme and contributes to its phosphatase-resistant state. J Biol Chem 272:35443549.
  • 57
    Newton AC 1997 Regulation of protein kinase C. Curr Opin Cell Biol 9:161167.
  • 58
    Ng T, Squire A, Hansra G, Bornancin F, Prevostel C, Hanby A, Ha W, Barnes D, Schmidt S, Mellor H, Bastiaens PI, Parker PJ 1999 Imaging protein kinase Calpha activation in cells. Science 283:20852089.
  • 59
    Goodnight J, Mischak H, Mushinski JF 1994 Association of elevated levels of protein kinase C-zeta mRNA and protein with murine B-lymphocytic neoplasia. Adv Cancer Res 64:159209.
  • 60
    Chang SE, Oh CD, Yang MS, Kang SS, Lee YS, Sonn JK, Chun JS 1998 Protein kinase C regulates chondrogenesis of mesenchymes via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. J Biol Chem 273:1921319219.
  • 61
    Chaudhary LR, Avioli LV 1997 Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1 and ERK2) by FGF-2 and PDGF-BB in normal human osteoblastic and bone marrow stromal cells: Differences in mobility and in-gel renaturation of ERK1 in human, rat, and mouse osteoblastic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 238:134139.
  • 62
    Kozawa O, Tokuda H, Matsuno H, Uematsu T 1999 Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in basic fibroblast growth factor-induced interleukin-6 synthesis in osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem 74:479485.
  • 63
    Boguslawski G, Hale LV, Xu XP, Miles RR, Onyia JE, Santerre RF, Chandrasekhar S 2000 Activation of osteocalcin transcription involves interaction of protein kinase A- and protein kinase C-dependent pathways. J Biol Chem 275:9991006.
  • 64
    Xiao G, Jiang D, Thomas P, Benson MD, Guan K, Karsenty G, Franceschi RT 2000 MAPK pathways activate and phosphorylate the osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Cbfa1. J Biol Chem 275:44534459.