• 1
    Wozney JM, Rosen V, Celeste AJ, Mitsock LM, Whitters MJ, Kriz RW, Hewick RM, Wang EA 1988 Novel regulators of bone formation: Molecular clones and activities. Science 242:15281534.
  • 2
    Wang EA, Rosen V, D'Alessandro JS, Bauduy M, Cordes P, Harada T, Israel DI, Hewick RM, Kerns KM, LaPan P, Luxenberg DP, McQuaid D, Moutsatsos IK, Nove J, Wozney JM 1990 Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:22202224.
  • 3
    Celeste AJ, Iannazzi JA, Taylor RC, Hewick RM, Rosen V, Wang EA, Wozney JM 1990 Identification of transforming growth factor beta family members present in bone-inductive protein purified from bovine bone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:98439847.
  • 4
    Hammonds RG Jr, Schwall R, Dudley A, Berkemeier L, Lai C, Lee J, Cunningham N, Reddi AH, Wood WI, Manson AJ 1991 Bone inducing activity of mature BMP-2b produced from a hybrid BMP-2a/2b precursor. Mol Endocrinol 5:149155.
  • 5
    Sampath TK, Maliakal JC, Hauschka PV, Jones WK, Sasak H, Tucker RF, White KH, Coughlin JE, Tucker MM, Pang RHL, Corbett C, Ozkaynak E, Oppermann H, Rueger DC 1992 Recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 (hOP-1) induces new bone formation in vivo with a specific activity comparable with natural bovine osteogenic protein and stimulates osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro. J Biol Chem 267:2035220362.
  • 6
    Nakase T, Nomura S, Yoshikawa H, Hashimoto J, Hirota S, Kitamura Y, Oikawa S, Ono K, Takaoka K 1994 Transient and localized expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 messenger RNA during fracture healing. J Bone Miner Res 9:651659.
  • 7
    Ishidou Y, Kitajima I, Obama H, Maruyama I, Murata F, Imamura T, Yamada N, ten Dijke P, Miyazono K, Sakou T 1995 Enhanced expression of type I receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins during bone formation. J Bone Miner Res 10:16511659.
  • 8
    Onishi T, Ishidou Y, Nagamine T, Yone K, Imamura T, Kato M, Sampath TK, ten Dijke P, Sakou T 1998 Distinct and overlapping patterns of localization of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members and a BMP type II receptor during fracture healing in rats. Bone 22:605612.
  • 9
    Smith WC, Harland RM 1992 Expression cloning of noggin, a new dorsalizing factor localized to the Spemann's organizer in Xenopus embryos. Cell 70:829840.
  • 10
    Koster M, Plessow S, Clement JH, Lorenz A, Tiedemann H, Knochel W 1991 Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), a member of the TGF-beta family, in early embryos of Xenopus laevis: Analysis of mesoderm inducing activity. Mech Dev 33:191199.
  • 11
    Dale L, Howes G, Price BM, Smith JC 1992 Bone morphogenetic protein 4: A ventralizing factor in early Xenopus development. Development 115:573585.
  • 12
    Jones CM, Lyons KM, Lapan PM, Wright CVE, Hogan BLM 1992 DVR-4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4) as a posterior-ventralizing factor in Xenopus mesoderm induction. Development 115:639647.
  • 13
    Suzuki A, Thies RS, Yamaji N, Song JJ, Wozney JM, Murakami K, Ueno N 1994 A truncated bone morphogenetic protein receptor affects dorsal-ventral patterning in the early Xenopus embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:1025510259.
  • 14
    Maeno M, Ong RC, Suzuki A, Ueno N, Kung HF 1994 A truncated bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor alters the fate of ventral mesoderm to dorsal mesoderm: Roles of animal pole tissue in the development of ventral mesoderm. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:1026010264.
  • 15
    Fainsod A, Steinbeisser H, De Robertis EM 1994 On the function of BMP-4 in patterning the marginal zone of the Xenopus embryo. EMBO J 13:50155025.
  • 16
    Graff JM, Thies RS, Song JJ, Celeste AJ, Melton DA 1994 Studies with a Xenopus BMP receptor suggest that ventral mesoderm-inducing signals override dorsal signals in vivo. Cell 79:169179.
  • 17
    Wilson PA, Hemmati-Brivanlou A 1995 Induction of epidermis and inhibition of neural fate by Bmp-4. Nature 376:331333.
  • 18
    Lamb TM, Knecht AK, Smith WC, Stachel SE, Economides AN, Stahl N, Yancopolous GD, Harland RM 1993 Neural induction by the secreted polypeptide noggin. Science 262:713718.
  • 19
    Knecht AK, Harland RM 1997 Mechanisms of dorsal-ventral patterning in noggin-induced neural tissue. Development 124:24772488.
  • 20
    Marcelle C, Stark MR, Bronner-Fraser M 1997 Coordinate actions of BMPs, Wnts, Shh and Noggin mediate patterning of the dorsal somite. Development 124:39553963.
  • 21
    Hirsinger E, Duprez D, Jouve C, Malapert P, Cooke J, Pourquié O 1997 Noggin acts downstream of Wnt and Sonic Hedgehog to antagonize BMP4 in avian somite patterning. Development 124:46054614.
  • 22
    Reshef R, Maroto M, Lassar AB 1998 Regulation of dorsal somitic cell fates: BMPs and noggin control the timing and pattern of myogenic regulator expression. Genes Dev 12:290303.
  • 23
    Smith WC, Knecht AK, Wu M, Harland RM 1993 Secreted noggin protein mimics the Spemann organizer in dorsalizing Xenopus mesoderm. Nature 361:547549.
  • 24
    Reem-Kalma Y, Lamb T, Frank D 1995 Competition between noggin and bone morphogenetic protein 4 activities may regulate dorsalization during Xenopus development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:1214112145.
  • 25
    Zimmerman LB, De Jesús-Eescobar JM, Harland RM 1996 The Spemann organizer signal noggin binds and inactivates bone morphogenetic protein 4. Cell 86:599606.
  • 26
    Holley SA, Neul JL, Attisano L, Wrana JL, Sasai Y, O'Connor MB, De Robertis EM, Ferguson EL 1996 The Xenopus dorsalizing factor noggin ventralizes Drosophila embryos by preventing DPP from activating its receptor. Cell 86:607617.
  • 27
    Lehrach H, Diamond D, Wozney JM, Boedtker H 1977 RNA molecular weight determinations by gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, a critical reexamination. Biochemistry 16:47434751.
  • 28
    Takaoka K, Yoshikawa H, Hashimoto J, Masuhara K, Miyamoto S, Suzuki S, Ono K, Matsui M, Oikawa S, Tsuruoka N, Tawaragi Y, Inuzuka C, Katayama T, Sugiyama M, Tsujimoto M, Nakanishi T, Nakazato H 1993 Gene cloning and expression of a bone morphogenetic protein derived from a murine osteosarcoma (Dunn). Clin Orthop 294:344352.
  • 29
    Hirota S, Ito A, Morii E, Wanaka A, Tohyama M, Kitamura Y, Nomura S 1992 Localization of mRNA for c-kit receptor and its ligand in the brain of adult rats: An analysis using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Mol Brain Res 15:4754.
  • 30
    Nomura S, Hirakawa K, Nagoshi J, Hirota S, Kim HM, Takemura T, Nakase T, Takaoka K, Matsumoto S, Nakajima Y, Takebayashi K, Takano-Yamamoto T, Ikeda T, Kitamura Y 1993 Method for detecting the expression of bone matrix protein by in situ hybridization using decalcified mineralized tissue. Acta Histochem Cytochem 26:303309.
  • 31
    Brunet LJ, McMahon JA, McMahon AP, Harland RM 1998 Noggin, cartilage morphogenesis, and joint formation in the mammalian skeleton. Science 280:14551457.
  • 32
    Gong Y, Krakow D, Marcelino J, Wilkin D, Chitayat D, Babul-Hirji R, Hudgins L, Cremers CW, Cremers FPM, Brunner HG, Reinker K, Rimoin DL, Cohn DH, Goodman FR, Reardon W, Patton M, Francomano CA, Warman ML 1999 Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding noggin affect human joint morphogenesis. Nat Genet 21:302304.
  • 33
    Capdevila J, Johnson RL 1998 Endogenous and ectopic expression of noggin suggests a conserved mechanism for regulation of BMP function during limb and somite patterning. Dev Biol 197:205217.
  • 34
    Merino R, Ganan Y, Macias D, Economides AN, Sampath KT, Hurle JM 1998 Morphogenesis of digits in the avian limb is controlled by FGFs, TGFβs, and noggin through BMP signaling. Dev Biol 200:3545.
  • 35
    Pathi S, Rutenberg JB, Johnson RL, Vortkamp A 1999 Interaction of Ihh and BMP/noggin signaling during cartilage differentiation. Dev Bio 209:239253.
  • 36
    Ito H, Akiyama H, Shigeno C, Nakamura T 1999 Noggin and bone morphogenetic protein-4 coordinately regulate the progression of chondrogenic differentiation in mouse clonal EC cells, ATDC5. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 260:240244.
  • 37
    Gazzerro E, Gangji V, Canalis E 1998 Bone morphogenetic proteins induce the expression of noggin, which limits their activity in cultured rat osteoblasts. J Clin Invest 102:21062114.
  • 38
    Bostrom MPG, Lane JM, Berberian WS, Missri AAE, Tomin E, Weiland A, Doty SB, Glaser D, Rosen VM 1995 Immunolocalization and expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 in fracture healing. J Orthop Res 13:357367.
  • 39
    Schluesener HJ, Meyermann R 1995 Immunolocalization of BMP-6, a novel TGF-beta-related cytokine, in normal and atherosclerotic smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 113:153156.
  • 40
    Jeziorska M, McCollum C, Wooley DE 1998 Observations on bone formation and remodeling in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of human carotid arteries. Virchows Arch 433:559565.
  • 41
    Willette RN, Gu JL, Lysko PG, Anderson KM, Minehart H, Yue T 1999 BMP-2 gene expression and effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells. J Vasc Res 36:120125.
  • 42
    Simon M, Maresh JG, Harris SE, Hernandez JD, Arar M, Olson MS, Abbound HE 1999 Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-7 mRNA in normal and ischemic adult rat kidney. Am J Physiol 276:382389.
  • 43
    Kitten AM, Kreisberg JI, Olson MS 1999 Expression of osteogenic protein-1 mRNA in cultured kidney cells. J Cell Physiol 181:410415.