• 1
    Rubin CT, McLeod KJ 1994 Promotion of bony ingrowth by frequency-specific, low-amplitude mechanical strain. Clin Orthop 298:165174.
  • 2
    Turner CH, Forwood MR, Otter MW 1994 Mechanotransduction in bone: Do bone cells act as sensors of fluid flow? FASEB J 8:875878.
  • 3
    Turner CH 1998 Three rules for bone adaptation to mechanical stimuli. Bone 23:399407.
  • 4
    Weinbaum S, Cowin SC, Zeng Y 1994 A model for the excitation of osteocytes by mechanical loading-induced bone fluid shear stresses. J Biomech 27:339360.
  • 5
    Ajubi NE, Klein-Nulend J, Nijweide PJ, Vrijheid-Lammers T, Alblas MJ, Burger EH 1996 Pulsating fluid flow increases prostaglandin production by cultured chicken osteocytes—a cytoskeleton-dependent process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 225:6268.
  • 6
    Hung CT, Pollack SR, Reilly TM, Brighton CT 1995 Real-time calcium response of cultured bone cells to fluid flow. Clin Orthop 313:256269.
  • 7
    Johnson DL, McAllister TN, Frangos JA 1996 Fluid flow stimulates rapid and continuous release of nitric oxide in osteoblasts. Am J Physiol 271:E205E208.
  • 8
    Pavalko FM, Chen NX, Turner CH, Burr DB, Atkinson S, Hsieh YF, Qiu J, Duncan RL 1998 Fluid shear-induced mechanical signaling in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts requires cytoskeleton-integrin interactions. Am J Physiol 275:C1591C1601.
  • 9
    Reich KM, Gay CV, Frangos JA 1990 Fluid shear stress as a mediator of osteoblast cyclic adenosine monophosphate production. J Cell Physiol 143:100104.
  • 10
    Sakai K, Mohtai M, Shida J, Harimaya K, Benvenuti S, Brandi ML, Kukita T, Iwamoto Y 1999 Fluid shear stress increases interleukin-11 expression in human osteoblast-like cells: Its role in osteoclast induction. J Bone Miner Res 14:20892098.
  • 11
    Smalt R, Mitchell FT, Howard RL, Chambers TJ 1997 Induction of NO and prostaglandin E2 in osteoblasts by wall-shear stress but not mechanical strain. Am J Physiol 273:E751E758.
  • 12
    Korenstein R, Somjen D, Fischler H, Binderman I 1984 Capacitative pulsed electric stimulation of bone cells. Induction of cyclic-AMP changes and DNA synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 803:302307.
  • 13
    Lorich DG, Brighton CT, Gupta R, Corsetti JR, Levine SE, Gelb ID, Seldes R, Pollack SR 1998 Biochemical pathway mediating the response of bone cells to capacitive coupling. Clin Orthop 350:246256.
  • 14
    Ozawa H, Abe E, Shibasaki Y, Fukuhara T, Suda TJ 1989 Electric fields stimulate DNA synthesis of mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) by a mechanism involving calcium ions. Cell Physiol 138:477483.
  • 15
    Otter MW, Palmieri VR, Wu DD, Seiz KG, MacGinitie LA, Cochran GVB 1992 A comparative analysis of streaming potentials in vivo and in vitro. J Orthop Res 10:710719.
  • 16
    Torrance AG, Mosley JR, Suswillo RF, Lanyon LE 1994 Noninvasive loading of the rat ulna in vivo induces a strain-related modeling response uncomplicated by trauma or periostal pressure. Calcif Tissue Int 54:241247.
  • 17
    Forwood MR, Bennett MB, Blowers AR, Nadorfi RL 1998 Modification of the in vivo four-point loading model for studying mechanically induced bone adaptation. Bone 23:307310.
  • 18
    Hsieh Y-F, Wang T, Turner CH 1999 Viscoelastic response of the rat loading models: Implications for studies of strain-adaptive bone formation. Bone 25:379382.
  • 19
    Mosley JR, March BM, Lynch J, Lanyon LE 1997 Strain magnitude related changes in whole bone architecture in growing rats. Bone 20:191198.
  • 20
    Zar JH 1984 Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, pp. 292304.
  • 21
    Jacobs CR, Yellowley CE, Davis BR, Zhou Z, Cimbala JM, Donahue HJ 1998 Differential effect of steady versus oscillating flow on bone cells. J Biomech 31:969976.
  • 22
    Fung YC 1981 Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA pp. 226237.
  • 23
    Reich KM, McAllister TN, Gudi S, Frangos JA 1997 Activation of G proteins mediates flow-induced prostaglandin E2 production in osteoblasts. Endocrinology 138:10141018.
  • 24
    Meazzini MC, Toma CD, Schaffer JL, Gray ML, Gerstenfeld LC 1998 Osteoblast cytoskeletal modulation in response to mechanical strain in vitro. J Orthop Res 16:170180.
  • 25
    Cowin SC, Weinbaum S 1998 Strain amplification in the bone mechanosensory system. Am J Med Sci 316:184188.
  • 26
    Rubin CT, Lanyon LE 1985 Regulation of bone mass by mechanical strain magnitude. Calcif Tissue Int 37:411417.
  • 27
    Turner CH, Forwood MR, Rho J-Y, Yoshikawa T 1994 Mechanical loading thresholds for lamellar and woven bone formation. J Bone Miner Res 9:8797.