• 1
    Banks RE, Goldwhile H 1966 Fluorine chemistry. In: SmithFA (ed.) Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol. 20, Part 1. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA, pp. 152.
  • 2
    Dean HT 1938 Endemic fluorosis and its relation to dental caries. Public Health Rep 53:14431452.
  • 3
    Striffler DF, Young WO, Burt BA 1983 The prevention and control of dental caries: Fluoridation. In: Dentistry, Dental Practice, and the Community, 3rd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 155200.
  • 4
    Dean HT, Arnold FA, Elvove E 1941 Domestic waters and dental caries. II. Studies of 2832 white children aged 12-14 years, of 8 suburban Chicago communities, including Lactobacillus acidophilus counts of 1761 children. Public Health Rep 56:761792.
  • 5
    Dean HT, Arnold FA, Elvove E 1941 Domestic water and dental caries. V. Additional studies of the relation of fluoride domestic waters to dental caries experience in 4425 white children aged 12-14 years of 13 cities in 4 states. Public Health Rep 57:11551179.
  • 6
    McClure FJ 1944 Fluoride domestic water and systemic effects. I. Relation to bone fracture experience, height and weight of high school boys and young selectees of the armed forces of the United States. Public Health Rep 59:15431558.
  • 7
    McClure FJ, Kinser CA 1944 Fluoride domestic waters and systemic effect. II. Fluoride content of urine in relation to fluoride in drinking waters. Public Health Rep 59:15751591.
  • 8
    Galagan DJ, Vermillion JR, Nevitt GA, Stadt ZM, Dart RE 1957 Climate and fluoride intake. Public Health Rep 72:484490.
  • 9
    Galagan DJ, Vermillion JR 1957 Determining optimum fluoride concentrations. Public Health Rep 72:491493.
  • 10
    USDHHS 1999 Healthy People 2000 Review 1998-1999—national health promotion and disease prevention objectives. DHHS Publication No (PHS) 99-1256.
  • 11
    World Health Organization 1986 Appropriate use of fluorides for human health. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, ISBN 924154203, pp. 3873.
  • 12
    Li Y, Dunipace AJ, Stookey GK 1988 Genotoxic effects of fluoride: A controversial issue. Mutation Res 195:127136.
  • 13
    Sowers MR, Clark MK, Jannausch ML, Wallace RB 1991 A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure. Am J Epidemiol 133:649660.
  • 14
    National Research Council 1993 Fluoride exposure and risk of bone fractures, In: Health effects of ingested fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, ISBN 0-309-04975-X, pp. 5171.
  • 15
    Danielson C, Lyon JL, Egger M, Goodenough GK 1992 Hip fracture and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population. JAMA 268:746748.
  • 16
    Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Miles TP, Brody JA, Stiers W, Rimm AE 1990 Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture: US white women aged 65 years and older. JAMA 264:500502.
  • 17
    Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Cooper C, Lockwood SA 1992 The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older: A national ecologic study. Ann Epidemiol 2:617626.
  • 18
    Karagas MR, Baron JA, Barrett JA, Jacobsen SJ 1996 Patterns of fracture among the United States elderly: Geographic and fluoride effects. Ann Epidemiol 6:209216.
  • 19
    Madans J, Kleinman JC, Cornini-Huntley J 1983 The relationship between hip fracture and water fluoridation: An analysis of national data. Am J Pub Health 73:296298.
  • 20
    Arnala I, Alhava EM, Kivivuori R, Kauranen P 1986 Hip fracture incidence not affected by fluoridation: Osteofluorosis studies in Finland. Acta Orthop Scan 57:344348.
  • 21
    Avorn J, Niessen LC 1986 Relationship between long bone fractures and water fluoridation. Gerodontics 2:175179.
  • 22
    Cooper C, Wickham C, Lacey RF, Barker DJ 1990 Water fluoride concentration and fracture of the proximal femur. J Epidemiol Comm Health 44:1719.
  • 23
    Simonen O, Laitinen O 1985 Does fluoridation of drinking water prevent bone fragility and osteoporosis? Lancet 2:43233.
  • 24
    Jacobsen SJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ 1993 Hip fracture incidence before and after fluoridation of the public water supply, Rochester, Minnesota. Am J Pub Health 83:743745.
  • 25
    Ando M, Tadano M, Asanuma S, Tamura K, Matsushima S, Watanabe T, Kondo T, Sakurai S, Ji R, Liang C, Cao S 1998 Health effects of indoor fluoride pollution from coal burning in China. Environ Health Perspect 106:239244.
  • 26
    National Standards 1995 Levels of labor intensity, Chinese National Standard GB 3869-83, Beijing, China.
  • 27
    Taves DR 1968 Separation of fluoride by rapid diffusion using hexamethyldisiloxane. Talanta 15:969974.
  • 28
    Dunipace AJ, Brizendine EJ, Zhang W, Wilson ME, Miller LL, Katz BP, Warrick JM, Stookey GK 1995 Effect of aging on animal response to chronic fluoride exposure. J Dent Res 74:358368.
  • 29
    Standard Department of Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine 1991 Standard compilation of environment, school and radiation health. Chinese Standard Publishing House, Beijing, China, pp. 278338.
  • 30
    Cooper C, Campion G, Melton LJ 1992 Hip fractures in the elderly: A worldwide projection. Osteop Int 2:28589.
  • 31
    Xu L, Lu A, Zhao X, Chen X, Cummings SR 1996 Vary low rates of hip fracture in Beijing, People's Republic of China. Am J Epidemiol 144:901907.
  • 32
    Gordon SL, Corbin SB 1992 Summary of workshop on drinking water fluoride influence on hip fracture on bone health. Osteop Int 2:109117.
  • 33
    Moffat AS 1990 China, a living lab for epidemiology. Science 248:553555.
  • 34
    Bernstein DS, Sadowsky N, Hegsted DM, Guri D, Stare FJ 1966 Prevalence of osteoporosis in high and low fluoride areas in North Dakota. JAMA 198:499504.
  • 35
    Feskanich D, Owusu W, Hunter DJ, Willett W, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Morris S, Spate VL, Colditz G 1998 Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women. Epidemiology 9:412416.
  • 36
    Riggs BL, Hodgson SF, O'Fallon WM, Chao EY, Wahner HW, Muhs JM, Cedel SC, Melton LJ 1996 Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 322:802809.
  • 37
    Riggs BL, Melton LJ, O'Fallon WM 1993 Toward optimal therapy of established osteoporosis: Evidence that antiresorptive and formation-stimulating regimens decrease vertebral fracture rate by independent mechanisms. In: ChristiansenC, RiisB (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Osteoporosis. Aalborg ApS, Aalborg, Denmark, pp. 1315.
  • 38
    Lehmann R, Wapniarz M, Hofmann B, Pieper B, Haubitz I, Allolio B 1998 Drinking water fluoridation: Bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence. Bone 22:273278.
  • 39
    Ringe JD, Kipshoven C, Coster A, Umbach R 1999 Therapy of established postmenopausal osteoporosis with monofluorophosphate plus calcium: Dose-related effects on bone density and fracture rate. Osteoporos Int 9:171178.
  • 40
    Allolio B, Lehmann R 1999 Drinking water fluoridation and bone. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 107:1220.
  • 41
    Li Y, Liang CK, Katz BP, Brizendine EJ, Stookey GK 1995 Long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water and sister chromatid exchange frequency in human lymphocytes. J Dent Res 74:14681474.
  • 42
    Sun SZ, Liang CK, Ji RD, Cao JQ, Yang SM, Pang XH, Lin YQ, Gao YZ, Cheng Z, Wang JZ, Zhang SL, Wang WY, Li Y, Katz BP, Brizendine EJ, Stookey GK 1996 Study on the relationship between endemic fluorosis and dietary nutritional level. J Hygiene Res 25:275281.
  • 43
    Liang CK, Li Y, Li WH, Zhang SL, Wu YP, Ma F, Katz BP, Brizendine EJ, Stookey GK 1999 Analyses of blood chemistry and electrolytes of human exposure to fluoride in drinking water. J Chinese Public Health 15:3436.