• 1
    Cooper GJS, Willis AC, Clark A, Turner RC, Sim RB, Reid KBM 1987 Purification and characterization of a peptide from amyloid-rich pancreases of type 2 diabetic patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:86288632.
  • 2
    Young AA 1997 AMY's physiology and its role in diabetes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabet 4:282290.
  • 3
    Young A, Moore C, Herich J, Beaumont K 1999 Neuroendocrine actions of AMY. In: PoynerD, MarshallI, BrainS (eds.) Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP). R G Landes Company, Austin TX, USA, pp. 91102.
  • 4
    Christopoulos G, Perry KJ, Morfis M, Tilakaratne N, Gao Y, Fraser NJ, Main MJ, Foord SM, Sexto PM 1999 Multiple AMY receptors arise from receptor activity modifying protein interaction with the calcitonin receptor gene product. Mol Pharmacol 56:235242.
  • 5
    Muff R, Bühlman NN, Fisher JA, Born W 1999 AMY receptor is revealed following cotransfection of a calcitonin receptor with receptor activity modifying proteins-1 or -3. Endocrinology 140:29242927.
  • 6
    Young AA, Vine W, Gedulin BR, Pittner R, Janes S, Gaeta LSL, Percy A, Moore CX, Koda JE, Rink TJ 1996 Preclinical pharmacology of pramlintide in the rat: Comparisons with rat and human AMY. Drug Dev Res 37:231248.
  • 7
    MacIntyre I 1989 AMYamide, bone conservation, and pancreatic β cells. Lancet 2:10261027.
  • 8
    Cornish J, Callon KE, Cooper GJS, Reid I 1994 AMY stimulates osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. J Bone Miner Res 9:S1;S299.
  • 9
    Zaïdi M, Shankar VS, Huang CLH, Pazianas M, Bloom SR 1993 AMY in bone conservation: Current evidence and hypothetical considerations. Trends Endocrinol Metab 4:42554259.
  • 10
    Koda JE, Fineman M, Rink TJ, Dailey GE, Muchmore DB, Linarelli LG 1992 AMY concentrations and glucose control. Lancet 339:11791180.
  • 11
    Borm AK, Klevesath MS, Borcea V, Kasperk C, Seibel MJ, Wahl P, Ziegler R, Naworth PP 1999 The effect of pramlintide (AMY analogue) treatment on bone metabolism and bone density in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res 31:472475.
  • 12
    Bone H, Hurley M, Goldstein H, Fineman M, Kolterman O 1999 Effects of administration of pramlintide for 12 months on bone metabolism markers in people with type 1 diabetes. Endocrine Society 81st Annual Meeting: Programs and Abstracts. San Diego, CA, USA, June 12-15, 1999, p. 147.
  • 13
    Bardoux P, Martin H, Ahloulay M, Scmitt F, Bouby N, Tring-Trang-Tan M-M, Bankir L 1999 Vasopressin contributes to hyperfiltration, albuminuria, and renal hypertrophy in diabetes mellitus: Study in vasopressin-deficient Brattelboro rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:1039710402.
  • 14
    Robins SP 1994 Biochemical markers for assessing skeletal growth. Eur J Clin Nutr 48(Suppl 1):S199S209.
  • 15
    Turner CH, Burr CB 1993 Basic mechanical measurements of bone: A tutorial. Bone 14:1459514608.
  • 16
    Pastoureau P, Chomel A, Bonnet J 1995 Specific evaluation of localized bone mass and bone loss in the rat using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry subregional analysis. Osteoporos Int 5:143149.
  • 17
    Cook JGH 1975 Factors influencing the assay of creatinine. Ann Clin Chem 12:219232.
  • 18
    Bergmeyer HU, Bernt E, Schmitt F, Stork H 1974 Glucose determination with hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In: BergmeyerHU (ed.) Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 11271131.
  • 19
    Hui SL, Epstein S, Johnston CC 1985 A prospective study of bone mass in patients with type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60:7480.
  • 20
    Sato K, Arakawa S, Tanaka Y, Suzuki K, Goto Y 1987 Bone histomorphometric study in biopsied iliac bone in diabetic patients. J Bone Miner Res 4:206211.
  • 21
    Bouillon R 1991 Diabetic bone disease. Calcif Tissue Int 49:155160.
  • 22
    Hough S, Avioli LV, Bergfeld MA, Fallow MD, Slatopolsky E, Teitelbaum SL 1981 Correction of abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in the rat by insulin therapy. Endocrinology 108:22282234.
  • 23
    Hou JC, Zernicke RF, Barnard RJ 1991 Experimental diabetes, insulin treatment, and femoral neck morphology and biomechanics in rats. Clin Orthop Relat Res 264:278285.
  • 24
    Reid IR, Evans MC, Cooper GJS, Ames RW, Stapleton J 1993 Circulating insulin levels are related to bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Physiol 265:E655E659.
  • 25
    Thomas DM, Ng KW, Best JD 1997 Insulin and bone: A clinical and scientific review. Endocrinol Metab 4:517.
  • 26
    Pun HK, Lau P, Ho PW 1989 The characterization, regulation and function of insulin receptors on osteoblast-like clonal osteosarcoma cell line. J Bone Miner Res 4:853862.
  • 27
    Hickman J, Mc Elduff A 1989 Insulin promotes growth of the cultured rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR-106-01: An osteoblast-like cell. Endocrinology 124:701706.
  • 28
    Craig RG, Rowe DW, Petersen DN, Kream BE 1989 Insulin increases the steady state level of alpha-1 procollagen mRNA in the osteoblast-rich fragment of fetal rat calvaria. Endocrinology 125:14301437.
  • 29
    Umpierrez GE, Zlatev T, Spanheimer RG 1989 Correction of altered collagen metabolism in diabetic animals with insulin therapy. Matrix 9:336349.
  • 30
    Canalis E 1996 Regulation of bone remodeling. In: FavusM J (ed.) Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA, New York, NY, USA, pp. 2934.
  • 31
    Schalch DS, Sessions CM, Farley AC, Masakawa A, Emler CA, Dills DG 1986 Interaction of insulin-like growth factor I/somatomedin C with cultured rat chondrocytes: Receptor binding and internalization. Endocrinology 118:15901597.
  • 32
    Thomas DN, Udagawa N, Hards DK, Quinn JMW, Moseley JM, Findlay DM, Best JD 1998 Insulin receptor expression in primary and cultured osteoclast-like cells. Bone 23:181186.
  • 33
    Friedman JM, Halaas JL 1998 Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 395:763770.
  • 34
    Bruneau G, Vaisse C, Caraty A, Monget P 1999 La leptine: Une clé pour la reproduction. Méd Sci 15:191196.
  • 35
    Ducy P, Amling M, Takeda S, Priemel M, Schilling AF, Beil FT, Shen J, Vinson C, Rueger JM, Karsenty G 2000 Leptin inhibits bone formation through a hypothalamic relay: A central control of bone mass. Cell 100:197207.
  • 36
    Bassilana F, Susa M, Keller HJ, Halleux C 2000 Human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation express leptin and functional leptin receptor. J Bone Miner Res 15:S1;S378.
  • 37
    Holloway WR, Collier EM, Aitken CJ, Malakellis M, Gough Tj, Myers DE, Collier GR, Nicholson GC 2000 Leptin inhibits osteoclast generation. J Bone Miner Res 15:S1;S174.
  • 38
    Miles PDG, Deftos LJ, Moossa AR, Olefsky JM 1994 Islet amyloid polypeptide (AMY) increases the renal excretion of calcium in the conscious dog. Calcif Tissue Int 55:269273.
  • 39
    Vine W, Smith P, Lachapell R, Blase E, Young GA 1998 Effects of rat AMY on renal function in the rat. Horm Metab Res 30:518522.
  • 40
    Gnaedinger MP, Uehlinger DE, Weidmann P, Sha SG, Muff R, Born W, Rasher W, Fischer JA 1989 Distinct hemodynamic and renal effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide and calcitonin in men. Am J Physiol 257:E848E854.
  • 41
    Cornish J, Callon KE, Cooper GJ, Reid IR 1995 AMY stimulates osteoblast proliferation and increases mineralized bone volume in adult mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 207:133139.
  • 42
    Romero DF, Bryer HP, Rucinski B, Isserow JA, Buchinsky FJ, Cvetovic M, Liu CC, Epstein S 1995 AMY increases bone volume but cannot ameliorate diabetic osteopenia. Calcif Tissue Int 56:5461.
  • 43
    Cornish J, Callon KE, King AR, Cooper GJS, Reid IR 1998 Systemic administration of AMY increases bone mass, linear growth, and adiposity in adult male mice. Am J Physiol 275:E694E699.
  • 44
    Zaïdi M, Bax BE, Shankar VS, Moonga BS, Simon B, Alam AS, Gaines Das RE, Pazianas M, Huang CL 1994 Dimensional analysis of osteoclastic bone resorption and the measurement of biologically active calcitonin. Exp Physiol 79:387399.
  • 45
    Cornish J, Callon KE, Lin CQX, Xiao CL, Gamble GD, Cooper GJS, Reid IR 1999 Comparison of the effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide and AMY on osteoblasts. J Bone Miner Res 14:13021309.
  • 46
    Cornish J, Callon KE, Grey AB, Balchin LM, Cooper GJS, Reid IR 1999 The proliferative effects of AMY and adrenomedullin on osteoblasts—an important role for the IGF-1 receptor. J Bone Miner Res 14:S1;S338.