Solubilization of bone mineral by osteoclasts depends on the formation of an acidic extracellular compartment through the action of a V-type ATPase. We previously cloned a gene encoding a putative osteoclast-specific proton pump subunit, termed OC-116 kDa, approved mouse Atp6i (ATPase, H+ transporting, [vacuolar proton pump] member I). The function of Atp6i as osteoclast-specific proton pump subunit was confirmed in our mouse knockout study. However, the transcription regulation of Atp6i remains largely unknown. In this study, the gene encoding mouse Atp6i and the promoter have been isolated and completely sequenced. In addition, the temporal and spatial expressions of Atp6i have been characterized. Intrachromosomal mapping studies revealed that the gene contains 20 exons and 19 introns spanning ∼11 kilobases (kb) of genomic DNA. Alignment of the mouse Atp6i gene exon sequence and predicted amino acid sequence to that of the human reveals a strong homology at both the nucleotide (82%) and the amino acid (80%) levels. Primer extension assay indicates that there is one transcription start site at 48 base pairs (bp) upstream of the initiator Met codon. Analysis of 4 kb of the putative promoter region indicates that this gene lacks canonical TATA and CAAT boxes and contains multiple putative transcription regulatory elements. Northern blot analysis of RNAs from a number of mouse tissues reveals that Atp6i is expressed predominantly in osteoclasts, and this predominant expression was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemical analysis. Whole-mount in situ hybridization shows that Atp6i expression is detected initially in the headfold region and posterior region in the somite stage of mouse embryonic development (E8.5) and becomes progressively restricted to anterior regions and the limb bud by E9.5. The expression level of Atp6i is largely reduced after E10.5. This is the first report of the characterizations of Atp6i gene, its promoter, and its gene expression patterns during mouse development. This study may provide valuable insights into the function of Atp6i, its osteoclast-selective expression, regulation, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for osteoclast activation.