SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Riggs BL, Khosla S, Melton LJ III 1998 A unitary model for involutional osteoporosis: Estrogen deficiency causes both Type I and Type II osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and contributes to bone loss in aging men. J Bone Miner Res 13:763773.
  • 2
    McKane RW, Khosla S, Risteli J, Robins SP, Muhs JM, Riggs BL 1997 Role of estrogen deficiency in pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone resorption in elderly women. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 109:174180.
  • 3
    Khosla S, Atkinson EJ, Melton LJ III, Riggs BL 1997 Effects of age and estrogen status on serum parathyroid hormone levels and biochemical markers of bone turnover in women: A population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:15221527.
  • 4
    Simpson ER, Mahendroo MS, Means GD, Kilgore MW, Hinshelwood MM, Graham-Lorence S, Amarneh B, Ito Y, Fisher CR, Michael MD, Mendelson CR, Bulun SE 1994 Aromatase cytochrome P450, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. Endocr Rev 15:342355.
  • 5
    Roa-Pena L, Zreik T, Harada N, Spelsberg TC, Riggs BL, Naftolin F 1994 Human osteoblast-like cells express aromatase immunoreactivity. Menopause 1:7377.
  • 6
    Eyre LJ, Bland R, Bujalska IJ, Sheppard MC, Stewart PM, Hewison M 1998 Characterization of aromatase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in rat osteoblastic cells. J Bone Miner Res 13:9961004.
  • 7
    Slemenda C, Longcope C, Peacock M, Hui S, Johnston CC 1996 Sex steroids, bone mass and bone loss. A prospective study of pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women. J Clin Invest 97:1421.
  • 8
    Cummings SR, Browner WS, Bauer D, Stone K, Ensrud K, Jamal S, Ettinger B 1998 Endogenous hormones and the risk of hip and vertebral fractures among older women. N Engl J Med 339:733738.
  • 9
    Ettinger B, Pressman A, Sklarin P, Bauer DC, Cautley JA, Cummings SR 1998 Associations between low levels of serum estradiol, bone density, and fractures among elderly women: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:22392243.
  • 10
    Stone K, Bauer DC, Black DM, Sklarin P, Ensrud KE, Cummings SR 1998 Hormonal predictors of bone loss in elderly women: A prospective study J Bone Miner Res 13:11671174.
  • 11
    Chapurlat RD, Garnero P, Breart G, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD 2000 Serum estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin and the risk of hip fracture in elderly women: The EPIDOS study. J Bone Miner Res 15:18351841.
  • 12
    Simpson ER, Mahendroo MS, Means GD, Kilgore MW, Hinshelwood MM, Graham-Lorence S, Amarneh B, Ito Y, Fisher CR, Michael MD 1994 Aromatase cytochrome P450, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. Endocr Rev 15:342355.
  • 13
    Parfitt AM 1984 The cellular basis of bone remodeling: The quantum concept reexamined in light of recent advances in the cell biology of bone. Calcif Tissue Int 36:S37S45.
  • 14
    Payette H, Gray-Donald K 1991 Dietary intake and biochemical indices of nutritional status in an elderly population, with estimates of the precision of the 7-d food record. Am J Clin Nutr 54:478488.
  • 15
    Pratt DA, Daniloff Y, Duncan A, Robins SP 1992 Automated analysis of the pyridinium crosslinks of collagen in tissue and urine using solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem 207:168175.
  • 16
    Bhatnagar AS, Häusler A, Schieweck K, Lang M, Bowman R 1990 Highly selective inhibition of estrogen biosynthesis by CGS 20 267, a new nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 37:10211027.
  • 17
    Lips P, Courpron P, Meunier PJ 1978 Mean wall thickness of trabecular bone packets in the human iliac crest: Changes with age. Calcif Tissue Res 26:1317.
  • 18
    Garnero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Chapuy M, Delmas PD 1996 Increased bone turnover in late postmenopausal women is a major determinant of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 11:337349.
  • 19
    Frost HM 1999 Perspective: On the estrogen-bone relationship and postmenopausal bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 14:14731477.
  • 20
    Jessop HL, Sjoberg M, Cheng MZ, Zaman G, Wheeler-Jones CPD, Lanyon LE 2001 Mechanical strain and estrogen activate estrogen receptor alpha in bone cells. J Bone Miner Res 16:10451055.
  • 21
    Khosla S, Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Klee GG, Riggs BL 1998 Relationship of serum sex steroid levels and bone turnover markers with bone mineral density in men and women: A key role for bioavailable estrogen. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:22662274.
  • 22
    Lindsay R, Hart DM, Clark DM 1984 The minimum effective dose of estrogen for prevention of postmenopausal bone loss. Obstet Gynecol 63:759763.
  • 23
    Ettinger B, Genant HK, Cann CE 1987 Postmenopausal bone loss is prevented by treatment with low-dosage estrogen with calcium. Ann Intern Med 106:4045.
  • 24
    Genant HK, Lucas J, Weiss S, Akin M, Emkey R, McNaney-Flint H, Downs R, Mortola J, Watts N, Yang HM, Banav N, Brennan JJ, Nolan JC 1997 Low-dose esterified estrogen therapy: Effects on bone, plasma estradiol concentrations, endometrium, and lipid levels. Arch Intern Med 157:26092615.
  • 25
    Willett WC, Colditz G, Stampfer M 2000 Postmenopausal estrogens—opposed, unopposed, or none of the above. JAMA 283:534535.
  • 26
    Notelovitz M 1997 Estrogen therapy and osteoporosis: Principles and practice. Am J Med Sci 313:212.
  • 27
    Judd HL, Mebane-Sims I, Legault C, Wasilauskas C, Johnson S, Merino M, Berrett-Connor E, Trabal J 1996 Effects of hormone replacement therapy on endometrial histology in postmenopausal women. The postmenopausal estrogen/progestin interventions (PEPI) trial. JAMA 275:370375.