SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Garn S 1970 The Earlier Gain and Later Loss of Cortical Bone. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL, USA.
  • 2
    Ruff CB, Walker A, Trinkaus E 1994 Postcranial Robusticity in Homo. III: Ontogeny. Am J Phys Anthrop 93: 3554.
  • 3
    Turner CH, Burr DB 1993 Basic biomechanical measurements of bone: A tutorial. Bone 14: 595608.
  • 4
    Woodhead HJ, Kemp AF, Blimkie CJR, Briddy JN, Duncan CS, Thompson M, Lam A, Howman-Giles R, Cowell CT 2001 Measurement of midfemoral shaft geometry: Repeatability and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. J Bone Miner Res 16: 22512259.
  • 5
    Seeman E 2002 An exercise in geometry. J Bone Miner Res 17: 373380.
  • 6
    Seeman E 2001 Clinical review 137: Sexual dimorphism in skeletal size, density, and strength. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 45764584.
  • 7
    Bass S, Delmas PD, Pearce G, Hendrich E, Tabensky A, Seeman E 1999 The differing tempo of growth in bone size, mass and density in girls is region-specific. J Clin Invest 104: 795804.
  • 8
    Preece MA, Hendrich I 1981 Mathematical modelling of individual growth curves. Br Med Bull 37: 247252.
  • 9
    Seeman E, Karlsson M, Duan Y 2000 On exposure to anorexia nervosa, the temporal variation in axial and appendicular skeletal development predisposes to site-specific deficits in bone size and density: A cross-sectional study. J Bone Miner Res 15: 22592265.
  • 10
    Frost H 1987 The mechanostat: A proposed pathogenic mechanism of osteoporosis and the bone mass effects of mechanical and nonmechanical agents. Bone Miner 2: 7386.
  • 11
    Lanyon LE 1987 Functional strain in bone tissue as an objective and controlling stimulus for adaptive remodelling. J Biomech 20: 10831093.
  • 12
    Karlsson MK, Magnusson H, Karlsson C, Seeman E 2001 The duration of exercise as a regulator of bone mass. Bone 28: 128132.
  • 13
    Bass S, Pearce G, Bradney M, Hendrick E, Delmas P, Harding A, Seeman E 1998 Exercise before puberty may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood: Studies in active prepubertal and retired female gymnasts. J Bone Miner Res 13: 500507.
  • 14
    Haapasalo H, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1996 Dimensions and estimated mechanical characteristics of the humerus after long-term tennis loading. J Bone Miner Res 11: 864872.
  • 15
    Haapasalo H, Kontulainen S, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Jarvinen M, Vuori I 2000 Exercise-induced bone gain is due to enlargement in bone size without a change in volumetric bone density: A peripheral quantitative computed tomography study of the upper arms of male tennis players. Bone 27: 351357.
  • 16
    Jones HH, Priest JD, Hayes WC, Tichenor CC, Nagel DA 1977 Humeral hypertrophy in response to exercise. J Bone Joint Surg Am 59A: 204208.
  • 17
    Huddleston A, Rockwell D, Kulund DN, Harrison B 1980 Bone mass in lifetime tennis athletes. JAMA 244: 11071109.
  • 18
    Hsieh YF, Robling AG, Ambrosius WT, Burr DB, Turner CH 2001 Mechanical loading of diaphyseal bone in vivo: The strain threshold for an osteogenic response varies with location. J Bone Miner Res 16: 22912297.