SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel 2001 Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 285: 785795.
  • 2
    Genant HK 1998 Current state of bone densitometry for osteoporosis. Radiographics 18: 913918.
  • 3
    Genant HK, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Gluer CC, Grampp S, Harris ST, Jergas M, Lang T, Lu Y, Majumdar S, Mathur A, Takada M 1996 Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral and structure: State of the art. J Bone Miner Res 6: 707730.
  • 4
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H 1996 Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ 312: 12541259.
  • 5
    Sievänen H 2000 A physical model for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density. Invest Radiol 35: 325330.
  • 6
    Beck TJ 1996 On measuring bone to predict osteoporotic fracture: Moving beyond statistical inference. Radiology 199: 612614.
  • 7
    Järvinen TL, Kannus P, Sievänen H 1999 Have the DXA-based exercise studies seriously underestimated the effects of mechanical loading on bone? J Bone Miner Res 14: 1634165.
  • 8
    Faulkner KG 2000 Bone matters: Are density increases necessary to reduce fracture risk? J Bone Miner Res 15: 183187.
  • 9
    Currey JD 2001 Bone strength: What are we trying to measure? Calcif Tissue Int 68: 205210.
  • 10
    Bolotin HH, Sievänen H 2001 Inaccuracies inherent in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in vivo bone mineral density can seriously mislead diagnostic/prognostic interpretations of patient-specific bone fragility. J Bone Miner Res 16: 799805.
  • 11
    Martin RB 1991 Determinants of the mechanical properties of bones. J Biomech 24: 7988.
  • 12
    Turner CH, Burr DB 1993 Basic biomechanical measurements of bone: A tutorial. Bone 14: 595608.
  • 13
    Sievänen H, Koskue V, Rauhio A, Kannus P, Heinonen A, Vuori I 1998 Peripheral quantitative computed tomography in human long bones: Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo precision. J Bone Miner Res 13: 871882.
  • 14
    Haapasalo H, Kontulainen S, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Järvinen M, Vuori I 2000 Exercise-induced bone gain is due to enlargement in bone size without a change in volumetric bone density: A peripheral quantitative computed tomography study of the upper arms of male tennis players. Bone 27: 351357.
  • 15
    Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sankelo M, Sievänen H, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1995 Effect of starting age of physical activity on bone mass in the dominant arm of tennis and squash players. Ann Intern Med 123: 2731.
  • 16
    Bradney M, Pearce G, Naughton G, Sullivan C, Bass S, Beck T, Carlson J, Seeman E 1998 Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: Changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: A controlled prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 12: 18141821.
  • 17
    Haapasalo H, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Pasanen M, Uusi-Rasi K, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1998 Effect of long-term unilateral activity on bone mineral density of female junior tennis players. J Bone Miner Res 13: 310319.
  • 18
    Bailey DA, McKay HA, Mirwald RL, Crocker PR, Faulkner RA 1999 A six-year longitudinal study of the relationship of physical activity to bone mineral accrual in growing children: The university of Saskatchewan bone mineral accrual study. J Bone Miner Res 14: 16721679.
  • 19
    Heinonen A, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Oja P, Pasanen M, Vuori I 2000 High-impact exercise and bones of growing girls: A 9-month controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 11: 10101017.
  • 20
    McKay HA, Petit MA, Schutz RW, Prior JC, Barr SI, Khan KM 2000 Augmented trochanteric bone mineral density after modified physical education classes: A randomized school-based exercise intervention study in prepubescent and early pubescent children. J Pediatr 136: 156162.
  • 21
    MacKelvie KJ, McKay HA, Khan KM, Crocker PR 2001 A school-based exercise intervention augments bone mineral accrual in early pubertal girls. J Pediatr 139: 501507.
  • 22
    Kontulainen S, Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sievänen H, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 2001 Good maintenance of exercise-induced bone gain with decreased training of female tennis and squash players. J Bone Miner Res 16: 195201.
  • 23
    Sievänen H, Kannus P, Oja P, Vuori I 1993 Precision of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the upper extremities. Bone Miner 20: 235243.
  • 24
    Beck TJ, Looker AC, Ruff CB, Sievänen H, Wahner HW 2000 Structural trends in the aging femoral neck and proximal shaft: Analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data. J Bone Miner Res 12: 22972304.
  • 25
    Mosekilde L, Mosekilde L 1990 Sex differences in age-related changes in vertebral body size, density and biomechanical competence in normal individuals. Bone 11: 6773.
  • 26
    Uusi-Rasi K, Sievänen H, Vuori I, Pasanen M, Heinonen A, Oja P 1998 Associations of physical activity and calcium intake with bone mass and size in healthy women at different ages. J Bone Miner Res 13: 133142.
  • 27
    Carter D, van der Meulen M, Beaupre G 1996 Skeletal development: Mechanical consequences of growth, aging and diseases. In: MarcusR, FeldmanD, KelseyJ (eds.) Osteoporosis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 333350.
  • 28
    Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Kyröläinen H, Perttunen J, Kannus P 2001 Mineral mass, size, and estimated mechanical strength of triple jumpers' lower limb. Bone 29: 279285.
  • 29
    Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Kannus P, Oja P, Vuori I 2002 Site-specific skeletal response to long-term weight training seems to be attributable to principal loading modality: A pQCT study of female weightlifters. Calcif Tissue Int 70: 469474.
  • 30
    Forwood MR, Burr DB 1993 Physical activity and bone mass: exercises in futility? Bone Miner 21: 89112.
  • 31
    Forwood MR 2001 Mechanical effects on the skeleton: Are there clinical implications? Osteoporos Int 12: 7783.
  • 32
    Järvinen TL, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Jolma P, Heinonen A, Järvinen M 1998 Randomized controlled study of effects of sudden impact loading on rat femur. J Bone Miner Res 13: 14751482.
  • 33
    Adami S, Gatti D, Braga V, Bianchini D, Rossini M 1999 Site-specific effects of strength training on bone structure and geometry of ultradistal radius in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 14: 16341635.
  • 34
    Ashizawa N, Nonaka K, Michikami S, Mizuki T, Amagai H, Tokuyama K, Suzuki M 1999 Tomographical description of tennis-loaded radius: Reciprocal relation between bone size and volumetric BMD. J Appl Physiol 86: 13471351.