SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2000 NIH Consensus Statement March 2000, Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy: What is osteoporosis and what are its consequences? NIH Press, Bethesda, MD, USA.
  • 2
    McCalden R, McGeough J, Court-Brown C 1997 Age-related changes in the compressive strength of cancellous bone. The relative importance of changes in density and trabecular architecture. J Bone Joint Surg Am 79:421427.
  • 3
    Hannan M, Felson D, Anderson J 2000 Bone mineral density in elderly men and women: Results from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 7:547553.
  • 4
    Hirano T, Turner C, Forwood M, Johnston C, Burr D 2000 Does suppression of bone turnover impair mechanical properties by allowing microdamage accumulation? Bone 27:1320.
  • 5
    Rubin C, Recker R, Cullen D, Ryaby J, McLeod K 1998 Prevention of bone loss in a post-menopausal population by low-level biomechanical intervention. Am Soc Bone Miner Res 23:1106.
  • 6
    Rubin C, Turner AS, Jerome C, Strachan M, Gladwell T, Bain S, McLeod K 1998 Low magnitude, high frequency mechanical stimulation increases trabecular density of the proximal femur. Am Soc Bone Miner Res 23:1126.
  • 7
    Rubin C, Turner, S., Bain S, Mallinckrodt C, McLeod K 2001 Anabolism: Low level mechanical signals are anabolic to trabecular bone. Nature 412:603604.
  • 8
    Rubin, C., Turner S, Mallinckrodt C, Jerome C, Bain S 2001 Mechanical strain, induced non-invasively in the high frequency domain, is osteogenic to cancellous-but not cortical-bone. Bone 15:22252229.
  • 9
    Rubin C, Xu E, Judex S 2001 Prevention of disuse osteoporosis by brief exposure to non-invasive, extremely low magnitude mechanical stimuli. FASEB 15:22252229.
  • 10
    Wolff J 1986 The Law of Bone Remodeling (Das Gesetz der Transformation der Knochen). Originally published in 1892 by Verlag von August Hirshwald, Berlin. English translation by Maquet P, Furlong R. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • 11
    Jones H, Priest J, Hayes W, Tichenor C, Nagel D 1977 Humeral hypertrophy in response to exercise. J Bone Joint Surg Am 59:204208.
  • 12
    Snow-Harter C, Bouxsein M, Lewis B, Carter D, Marcus R 1992 Effects of resistance and endurance exercise on bone mineral status of young women. J Bone Miner Res 7:761769.
  • 13
    Shackleford L, Leblanc A, Feiveson A, Oganov V 1999 Bone loss in space: Shuttle/Mir experience and bed rest countermeasure program. First Biennial Space Biomed Inv Workshop 1:17.
  • 14
    Rubin C, Lanyon L 1984 Dynamic strain similarity in vertebrates. J Theor Biol 107:321327.
  • 15
    Morey E, Baylink D 1978 Inhibition of bone formation during space flight. Science 201:11381141.
  • 16
    Rubin C, Lanyon L 1984 Regulation of bone formation by applied dynamic loads. J Bone Joint Surg Am 66:397402.
  • 17
    Brown T, Pedersen D, Gray M, Brand R, Rubin C 1990 Identification of mechanical parameters initiating periosteal remodeling. J Biomech 23:893905.
  • 18
    Rubin C, Gross T, McLeod K, Bain S 1995 Morphologic stages in lamellar bone formation stimulated by a potent mechanical stimulus. J Bone Miner Res 10:488495.
  • 19
    Frost H 1990 Skeletal structural adaptations to mechanical usage. Anat Rec 26:403413.
  • 20
    Fritton S, McLeod K, Rubin C 2000 Quantifying the strain history of bone: Spatial uniformity and self-similarity of low magnitude strains. J Biomech 33:317326.
  • 21
    Adams D, Spirt A, Brown T, Fritton S, Rubin C, Brand R 1997 Testing the daily stress stimulus of bone adaptation with natural and experimentally controlled strain histories. J Biomech 30:671678.
  • 22
    Desplanches D, Mayet M, Ilyina-Kakueva I, Sempore B, Flandrois R 1990 Skeletal muscle adaptation in rats flown on Cosmos 1667. J Appl Physiol 68:4852.
  • 23
    Huang R, McLeod K, Rubin C 1999 Changes in the dynamics of muscle contraction as a function of age: A contributing factor to the etiology of osteoporosis? J Gerontol 54:352357.
  • 24
    Rubin C, McLeod K 1994 Promotion of bony ingrowth by frequency specific, low amplitude mechanical strains. Clin Orthop 298:165174.
  • 25
    Qin Y-X, Rubin C, McLeod K 1998 Nonlinear dependence of loading intensity and cycle number in the maintenance of bone mass and morphology. J Orthop Res 16:482489.
  • 26
    Fritton J, Rubin C, Qin Y, McLeod K 1997 Vibration in the skeleton: I. Development of a resonance-based whole body vibration device. Ann Biomed Eng 25:831839.
  • 27
    Fritton S, Rubin C 2001 In vivo measurement of bone deformation using strain gauges In: S.Cowen (ed.) Bone Mechanics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 141.
  • 28
    Rüegsegger P, Koller B, Müller R 1996 A microtomographic system for the nondestructive evaluation of bone architecture. Calcif Tissue Int 58:2429.
  • 29
    Müller R, Rüegsegger P 1997 Micro-tomographic imaging for the nondestructive evaluation of trabecular bone architecture. Stud Health Technol Inform 40:6179.
  • 30
    Hildebrand T, Laib A, Müller R, Dequeker J, Rüegsegger P 1999 Direct 3-D morphometric analysis of human cancellous bone: Microstructural data from spine, femur, iliac crest, and calcaneus. J Bone Miner Res 14:11671174.
  • 31
    Müller R, Van Campenhout H, Van Damme B, Van der Perre G, Dequeker J, Hildebrand T, Rüegsegger P 1998 Morphometric analysis of human bone biopsies: Quantitative structural comparison of histological sections and micro-computed tomography. Bone 23:5966.
  • 32
    Balto K, Müller R, Carrington D, Dobeck J, Stashenko P 2000 Quantitation of periapical bone destruction in mice by micro-computed tomography. J Dent Res 79:3540.
  • 33
    Kurth A, Müller R 2001 The effect of an osteolytic tumor on three-dimensional trabecular bone morphology in an animal model. Skelet Radiol 30:9498.
  • 34
    Odgaard A 1997 Three-dimensional methods for quantification of cancellous bone architecture. Bone 20:315328.
  • 35
    Kaplan S, Hayes W, Stone J, Beupie G 1985 Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone. J Biomech 18:723727.
  • 36
    Keaveny T, Borchers R, Gibson L, Hayes W 1993 Trabecular bone modulus and strength can depend on specimen geometry. J Biomech 27:11271136.
  • 37
    Ashman R 1989 Experimental techniques. In: CowinS (ed.) Bone Mechanics. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 7596.
  • 38
    Carter D, Harris W, Vasu R, Caler W 1981 The mechanical and biological response of cortical bone to in vivo strain histories. Am Soc Mech Eng 45:8195.
  • 39
    Pope MH, McLeod K, Magnusson M, Rostedt M, Hansson T, Rubin C 1996 Transmission of whole body vibrations in the 10–40 Hz range into the hip and lumbar spine. Trans 42nd Orthop Res Soc 21:668.
  • 40
    Weinbaum S, Cowin SC, Zeng Y 1994 A model for the excitation of osteocytes by mechanical loading-induced bone fluid shear stresses. J Biomech 27:339360.
  • 41
    Cowin S, Weinbaum S, Zeng Y 1995 A case for bone canaliculi as the anatomical site of strain-generated potentials. J Biomech 28:12811296.
  • 42
    Qin Y-X, McLeod K, Rubin C 1998a The interdependent role of loading frequency, intracortical fluid pressure and pressure gradients in guiding site-specific bone adaptation. Trans Orthop Res Soc 23:544.
  • 43
    Qin Y-X, McLeod K, Rubin C 2000 intracortical fluid flow is induced by dynamic intramedullary pressure independent of matrix deformation. Trans Orthop Res Soc 25:740.
  • 44
    Otter M, Rubin C, McLeod K 1998 Stochastic modulation of cell shape by low-level mechanical loading. Am J Med Sci 316:176183.
  • 45
    Gerstenfeld L, Cho T, Kon T, Aizawa T, Cruceta J, Graves B, Einhorn T 2001 Impaired intramembranous bone formation during bone repair in the absence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling. Cells Tissues Organs 169:285294.
  • 46
    Hahn M, Vogel M, Pompesius-Kempa M, Delling G 1992 Trabecular bone pattern factor—a new parameter for simple quantification of bone microarchitecture. Bone 13:327330.
  • 47
    Tzankoff S, Norris A 1977 Effect of muscle mass decrease on age-related BMR changes. J Appl Phys 43:10011006.
  • 48
    Orizio C 1993 Muscle sound: Basis for mechanomyographic analyses. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 21:201243.
  • 49
    Clamann H 1969 Motor unit firing patterns in a human skeletal muscle. Biophys J 9:12331251.
  • 50
    Booth F, Gollnick P 1983 Effects of disuse on the structure and function of skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exer 15:415420.
  • 51
    Hennig R, Lomo T 1985 Firing patterns of motor units in normal rats. Nature 314:164166.