SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Bailey DA, McKay HA, Mirwald RL, Crocker PRE, Faulkner RA 1999 The University of Saskatchewan Bone Mineral Accrual Study: A six year longitudinal study of the relationship of physical activity to bone mineral accrual in growing children. J Bone Miner Res 14:16721679.
  • 2
    Bass S, Pearce G, Bradney M, Hendrich E, Delmas PD, Hardy A, Seeman E 1998 Exercise before puberty may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood: Studies in active prepubertal and retired female gymnasts. J Bone Miner Res 13:500507.
  • 3
    Goulding A, Cannan R, Williams SM, Gold EJ, Taylor RW, Lewis-Barned NJ 1998 Bone mineral density in girls with forearm fractures. J Bone Miner Res 13:143148.
  • 4
    McCalden RW, McGeough JA, Court-Brown CM 1997 Age-related changes in the compressive strength of cancellous bone. The relative importance of changes in density and trabecular architecture. J Bone Joint Surg Am 79:421427.
  • 5
    Parfitt AM 1994 The two faces of growth: Benefits and risks to bone integrity. Osteoporos Int 4:382398.
  • 6
    Boot AM, DeRidder MAJ, Pols HAP, Krenning EP, DeMuinck Keizer-Schrama SMPF 1997 Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: Relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:5762.
  • 7
    Rubin K, Schirduan V, Gendreau P, Sarfarazi M, Mendola R, Dalsky G 1993 Predictors of axial and peripheral bone mineral density in healthy children and adolescents, with special attention to the role of puberty. J Pediatr 123:863870.
  • 8
    Katzman DK, Bachrach LK, Carter DR, Marcus R 1991 Clinical and anthropometric correlates of bone mineral acquisition in healthy adolescent girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73:13321339.
  • 9
    Kroger H, Kotaniemi A, Kroger L, Alhava E 1993 Development of bone mass and bone density of the spine and femoral neck: A prospective study of 65 children and adolescents. Bone Miner 23:171182.
  • 10
    Sabatier JP, Guaydier-Souquieres G, Benmalek A, Marcelli C 1999 Evolution of lumbar bone mineral content during adolescence and adulthood: A longitudinal study in 395 healthy females 10–24 years of age and 206 premenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 9:476482.
  • 11
    Blum M, Harris SS, Must A, Phillips SM, Rand WM, Dawson-Hughes B 2001 Weight and body mass index at menarche are associated with premenopausal bone mass. Osteoporos Int 12:588594.
  • 12
    Bass SL 2000 The prepubertal years: A uniquely opportune stage of growth when the skeleton is most responsive to exercise? Sports Med 30:7378.
  • 13
    Khan KM, McKay HA, Haapasalo H, Bennell KL, Forwood MR, Kannus P, Wark JD 2000 Does childhood and adolescence provide a unique opportunity for exercise to strengthen the skeleton? J Sci Med Sport 3:150164.
  • 14
    Fuchs RK, Bauer JJ, Snow CM 2001 Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 16:148156.
  • 15
    Morris FL, Naughton GA, Gibbs JL, Carlson JS, Wark JD 1997 Prospective 10-month exercise intervention in pre-menarcheal girls: Positive effects on bone and lean mass. J Bone Miner Res 12:14531462.
  • 16
    Heinonen A, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Oja P, Pasanen M, Vuori I 2000 High-impact exercise and bones of growing girls: A 9-month controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 11:10101017.
  • 17
    MacKelvie KJ, McKay HA, Khan KM, Crocker PRE 2001 A school-based loading intervention augments bone mineral accrual in early pubertal girls. J Pediatr 139:501508.
  • 18
    McKay HA, Petit MA, Schutz RW, Prior JC, Barr SI, Khan KM 2000 Augmented trochanteric bone mineral density after modified physical education classes: A randomized school-based exercise intervention study in pre- and early-pubescent children. J Pediatr 136:156162.
  • 19
    Bradney M, Pearce G, Naughton G, Sullivan C, Bass S, Beck T, Carlson J, Seeman E 1998 Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: Changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: A controlled prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 13:18141821.
  • 20
    Kannus P, Parkkari J, Sievanen H, Heinonen A, Vuori I, Jarvinen M 1996 Epidemiology of hip fractures. Bone 18(Suppl 1):57S63S.
  • 21
    Liu Z, Zhao YL, Ding GZ, Zhou Y 1997 Epidemiology of primary osteoporosis in China. Osteoporos Int 7(Suppl 3):S84S87.
  • 22
    McKay HA, Petit MA, Khan KM, Schutz RA 2000 Lifestyle determinants of bone mineral: A comparison between pre-pubertal Asian- and Caucasian-Canadian boys and girls. Calcif Tissue Int 66:320324.
  • 23
    MacKelvie KJ, McKay HA, Khan KM, Crocker PRE 2001 Lifestyle risk factors for osteoporosis in Asian and Caucasian girls. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:18181824.
  • 24
    Tanner JM 1978 Standards of Normal Growth in Foetus into Man. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, pp. 167205.
  • 25
    Duke PM, Litt IF, Gross RT 1980 Adolescents' self-assessment of sexual maturation. Pediatrics 66:918920.
  • 26
    Hologic, Inc. 1996 Model QDR-4500 User's Guide. Hologic, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA, pp. 4.14.36, 6.1–6.34, 7.1–7.18.
  • 27
    Gilsanz V 1999 Assessment of bone mass development during childhood and adolescence by quantitative imaging techniques. Nutr Bone Dev 41:147164.
  • 28
    Sievanen H, Kannus P, Nieminen V, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I 1996 Estimation of various mechanical characteristics of human bones using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: Methodology and precision. Bone 18:17S27S.
  • 29
    McKay HA, Petit MA, Bailey DA, Wallace WM, Schutz RW, Khan KM 2000 Analysis of proximal femur DXA scans in growing children: Comparisons of different protocols for cross-sectional, 8-month and 7-year longitudinal data. J Bone Miner Res 15:11811188.
  • 30
    Barr SI 1994 Associations of social and demographic variables with calcium intakes of high school students. J Am Diet Assoc 94:260266, 269.
  • 31
    Crocker PRE, Bailey DA, Faulkner RA, Kowalski KC, McGrath R 1997 Measuring general levels of physical activity: Preliminary evidence for the Physical Activity Questionnaire for older children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29:13441349.
  • 32
    Kowalski KC, Crocker PRE, Faulkner RA 1997 Validation of the physical activity questionnaire for older children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 9:174186.
  • 33
    McKay HA, Tsang G, Heinonen A, Sanderson D 2000 Ground reaction forces and rates of force associated with a bone loading intervention in children: Relationship between explosive power, physical activity and bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 15:S1;S438.
  • 34
    Bhudhikanok GS, Wang M, Eckert K, Matkin C, Marcus R, Bacharach LK 1996 Differences in bone mineral in young Asian and Caucasian Americans may reflect differences in bone size. J Bone Miner Res 11:15451556.
  • 35
    Molgaard C, Thomsen BL, Michaelsen KF 1998 Influence of weight, age and puberty on bone size and bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents. Acta Paediatr 87:494499.
  • 36
    Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H 1996 Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ 312:12541259.
  • 37
    Bolotin HH, Sievanen H 2001 Inaccuracies inherent in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in vivo bone mineral density can seriously mislead diagnostic/prognostic interpretations of patient-specific bone fragility. J Bone Miner Res 16:799805.
  • 38
    Gilsanz V, Skaggs DL, Kovanlikaya A, Sayre J, Loro ML, Kaufman F, Korenman SG 1998 Differential effect of race on the axial and appendicular skeletons of children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:14201427.
  • 39
    Bachrach LK, Hastie T, Wang MC, Narasimhan B, Marcus R 1999 Bone mineral acquisition in healthy Asian, Hispanic, Black, and Caucasian youth: A longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:47024712.
  • 40
    Gilsanz V, Kovanlikaya A, Costin G, Roe TF, Sayre J, Kaufman F 1997 Differential effect of gender on the sizes of the bones in the axial and appendicular skeletons. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:16031607.
  • 41
    Leung SS, Lau JT, Tse LY, Oppenheimer SJ 1996 Weight-for-age and weight-for-height references for Hong Kong children from birth to 18 years. J Paediatr Child Health 32:103109.
  • 42
    Faulkner RA, Bailey DA, Drinkwater DT, McKay HA, Arnold C, Wilkinson AA 1996 Bone densitometry in Canadian children 8–17 years of Age. Calcif Tissue Int 59:344351.
  • 43
    2000 CDC Growth Charts-United States Body mass index-for-age percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 years. National Center for Health Statistics and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: http://www.cdc.gov.
  • 44
    Leung SSF, Cole TJ, Tse LY, Lau JT 1998 Body mass index curves for Chinese children. Ann Hum Biol 25:169174.
  • 45
    Frost HM 1997 Obesity, and bone strength and “mass”: A tutorial based on insights from a new paradigm. Bone 21:211214.
  • 46
    Klein KO, Larmore KA, de Lancey E, Brown JM, Considine RV, Hassink SG 1998 Effect of obesity on estradiol level, and its relationship to leptin, bone maturation, and bone mineral density in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:34693475.
  • 47
    Goulding A, Taylor RW, Jones IE, McAuley KA, Manning PJ, Williams SM 2000 Overweight and obese children have low bone mass and area for their weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:627632.
  • 48
    Irwin ML, Ainsworth BE, Conway JM 2001 Estimation of energy expenditure from physical activity measures: Determinants of accuracy. Obes Res 9:517525.
  • 49
    Sallis JF, Buono MJ, Roby JJ, Micale FG, Nelson JA 1993 Seven-day recall and other physical activity self-reports in children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25:99108.
  • 50
    Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Coleman KJ, Vito D, Anderson K 1996 Determinants of physical activity in obese children assessed by accelerometer and self-report. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28:11571164.
  • 51
    Vanderschueren-Lodeweyckx M 1993 The effect of simple obesity on growth and growth hormone. Horm Res 40:2330.
  • 52
    Laaneots L, Karelson K, Smiernova T, Viru A 1998 Hormonal responses to exercise in girls during sexual maturation. J Physiol Pharm 49:121133.
  • 53
    Kanaley JA, Weatherup-Dentes MM, Jaynes EB, Hartman ML 1999 Obesity attenuates the growth hormone response to exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:31563161.
  • 54
    Damien E, Price JS, Lanyon LE 2000 Mechanical strain stimulates osteoblast proliferation through the estrogen receptor in males as well as females. J Bone Miner Res 15:21692177.
  • 55
    Turner C 2000 Exercising the skeleton: Beneficial effects of mechanical loading on bone structure. Endocrinologist 10:164169.
  • 56
    Bolotin HH, Sievanen H, Grashuis JL, Kuiper JW, Jarvinen TLN 2001 Inaccuracies inherent in patient-specific dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density measurements: Comprehensive phantom-based evaluation. J Bone Miner Res 16:417426.