• 1
    Cosman F, Lindsay R 1998 Is parathyroid hormone a therapeutic option for osteoporosis? A review of the clinical evidence. Calcif Tissue Int 62:475480.
  • 2
    Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, Prince R, Gaich GA, Reginster JY, Hodsman AB, Eriksen EF, Ish-Shalom S, Genant HK, Wang O, Mitlak BH 2001 Effect of parathyroid hormone (1–34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 344:14341441.
  • 3
    Vahle JL, Sato M, Long GG, Young JK, Francis PC, Engelhardt JA, Westmore M, Ma L, Nold JB 2002 Skeletal changes in rats given daily subcutaneous injections of recombinant human parathyroid hormone(1–34) for 2 years and relevance to human safety. Toxicol Pathol 30:312321.
  • 4
    Anonymous 2000 Drugs for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Medical Letter on Drugs & Therapeutics 42:97100.
  • 5
    Mosekilde L, Sogaard CH, Danielsen CC, Torring O 1991 The anabolic effects of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) on rat vertebral body mass are also reflected in the quality of bone, assessed by biomechanical testing: A comparison study between hPTH-(1–34) and hPTH-(1–84). Endocrinology 129:421428.
  • 6
    Oxlund H, Ejersted C, Andreassen TT, Torring O, Nilsson MH 1993 Parathyroid hormone (1–34) and (1–84) stimulate cortical bone formation both from periosteum and endosteum. Calcif Tissue Int 53:394399.
  • 7
    Ejersted C, Andreassen TT, Nilsson MH, Oxlund H 1994 Human parathyroid hormone(1–34) increases bone formation and strength of cortical bone in aged rats. Eur J Endocrinol 130:201207.
  • 8
    Stanislaus D, Devanarayan V, Hock JM 2000 In vivo comparison of activated protein-1 gene activation in response to human parathyroid hormone (hPTH)(1–34) and hPTH(1–84) in the distal femur metaphyses of young mice. Bone 27:819826.
  • 9
    Brommage R, Hotchkiss CE, Lees CJ, Stancill MW, Hock JM, Jerome CP 1999 Daily treatment with human recombinant parathyroid hormone-(1–34), LY333334, for 1 year increases bone mass in ovariectomized monkeys. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:37573763.
  • 10
    Sato M, Westmore M, Clendenon J, Smith S, Hannum B, Zeng GQ, Brommage R, Turner CH 2000 Three-dimensional modeling of the effects of parathyroid hormone on bone distribution in lumbar vertebrae of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques. Osteoporos Int 11:871880.
  • 11
    Burr DB, Hirano T, Turner CH, Hotchkiss C, Brommage R, Hock JM 2001 Intermittently administered human parathyroid hormone(1–34) treatment increases intracortical bone turnover and porosity without reducing bone strength in the humerus of ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. J Bone Miner Res 16:157165.
  • 12
    Jerome CP, Burr DB, Van Bibber T, Hock JM, Brommage R 2001 Treatment with human parathyroid hormone (1–34) for 18 months increases cancellous bone volume and improves trabecular architecture in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Bone 28:150159.
  • 13
    Marcus R 2000 Anabolic therapies. Clin Lab Med 20:623637.
  • 14
    Boivin GY, Chavassieux PM, Santora AC, Yates J, Meunier PJ 2000 Alendronate increases bone strength by increasing the mean degree of mineralization of bone tissue in osteoporotic women. Bone 27:687694.
  • 15
    Lindsay R, Tohme JF 1990 Estrogen treatment of patients with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Obstet Gynecol 76:290295.
  • 16
    Lane NE, Sanchez S, Modin GW, Genant HK, Pierini E, Arnaud CD 1998 Parathyroid hormone treatment can reverse corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Invest 102:16271633.
  • 17
    Finkelstein JS, Klibanski A, Schaefer EH, Hornstein MD, Schiff I, Neer RM 1994 Parathyroid hormone for the prevention of bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. N Engl J Med 331:16181623.
  • 18
    Reeve J, Hesp R, Williams D, Hulme P, Klenerman L, Zanelli JM, Darby AJ, Tregear GW, Parsons JA 1976 Anabolic effect of low doses of a fragment of human parathyroid hormone on the skeleton in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Lancet 1:10351038.
  • 19
    Reeve J, Meunier PJ, Parsons JA, Bernat M, Bijvoet OL, Courpron P, Edouard C, Klenerman L, Neer RM, Renier JC, Slovik D, Vismans FJ, Potts JT Jr 1980 Anabolic effect of human parathyroid hormone fragment on trabecular bone in involutional osteoporosis: A multicentre trial. BMJ 280:13401344.
  • 20
    Hesp R, Hulme P, Williams D, Reeve J 1981 The relationship between changes in femoral bone density and calcium balance in patients with involutional osteoporosis treated with human parathyroid hormone fragment (hPTH 1–34). Metab Bone Dis Rel Res 2:331334.
  • 21
    Reeve J, Davies UM, Hesp R, McNally E, Katz D 1990 Treatment of osteoporosis with human parathyroid peptide and observations on effect of sodium fluoride. BMJ 301:314318.
  • 22
    Reeve J, Bradbeer JN, Arlot M, Davies UM, Green JR, Hampton L, Edouard C, Hesp R, Hulme P, Ashby JP 1991 hPTH 1–34 treatment of osteoporosis with added hormone replacement therapy: Biochemical, kinetic and histological responses. Osteoporos Int 1:162170.
  • 23
    Slovik DM, Rosenthal DI, Doppelt SH, Potts JT Jr, Daly MA, Campbell JA, Neer RM 1986 Restoration of spinal bone in osteoporotic men by treatment with human parathyroid hormone (1–34) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. J Bone Miner Res 1:377381.
  • 24
    Neer R, Slovik D, Doppelt S, Daly M, Rosenthal C, Lo C, Potts J 1987 The use of parathyroid hormone plus 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D to increase trabecular bone in osteoporotic men and postmenopausal women. In: ChristiansenC, JohansenJS, RiisBJ (eds.) Osteoporosis. Osteopress, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 829835.
  • 25
    Hesch RD, Busch U, Prokop M, Delling G, Rittinghaus EF 1989 Increase of vertebral density by combination therapy with pulsatile 1–38 hPTH and sequential addition of calcitonin nasal spray in osteoporotic patients. Calcif Tissue Int 44:176180.
  • 26
    Vogel M, Hesch RD, Delling G 1990 Morphologische untersuchung der beckenkammspongiosa bei patienten mit osteoporose unter einer kombinationstherapie mit pulsatiler gabe von parathormon (1–38 hPTH) und sequentieller verabreichung von calcitonin-nasenspray. Medizinische Klin 85:8286.
  • 27
    Hodsman AB, Steer BM, Fraher LJ, Drost DJ 1991 Bone densitometric and histomorphometric responses to sequential human parathyroid hormone (1–38) and salmon calcitonin in osteoporotic patients. Bone Miner 14:6783.
  • 28
    Sone T, Fukunaga M, Ono S, Nishiyama T 1995 A small dose of human parathyroid hormone(1–34) increased bone mass in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with senile osteoporosis. Miner Electrolyte Metab 21:232235.
  • 29
    Lindsay R, Nieves J, Formica C, Henneman E, Woelfert L, Shen V, Dempster D, Cosman F 1997 Randomised controlled study of effect of parathyroid hormone on vertebral-bone mass and fracture incidence among postmenopausal women on oestrogen with osteoporosis. Lancet 350:550555.
  • 30
    Hodsman AB, Fraher LJ, Watson PH, Ostbye T, Stitt LW, Adachi JD, Taves DH, Drost D 1997 A randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of cyclical parathyroid hormone versus cyclical parathyroid hormone and sequential calcitonin to improve bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:620628.
  • 31
    Lane NE, Sanchez S, Modin GW, Genant HK, Pierini E, Arnaud CD 2000 Bone mass continues to increase at the hip after parathyroid hormone treatment is discontinued in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Bone Miner Res 15:944951.
  • 32
    Fujita T, Inoue T, Morii H, Morita R, Norimatsu H, Orimo H, Takahashi HE, Yamamoto K, Fukunaga M 1999 Effect of an intermittent weekly dose of human parathyroid hormone (1–34) on osteoporosis: A randomized double-masked prospective study using three dose levels. Osteoporos Int 9:296306.
  • 33
    Kurland ES, Cosman F, McMahon DJ, Rosen CJ, Lindsay R, Bilezikian JP 2000 Parathyroid hormone as a therapy for idiopathic osteoporosis in men: Effects on bone mineral density and bone markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:30693076.
  • 34
    Cosman F, Nieves J, Woelfert L, Formica C, Gordon S, Shen V, Lindsay R 2001 Parathyroid hormone added to established hormone therapy: Effects on vertebral fracture and maintenance of bone mass after parathyroid hormone withdrawal. J Bone Miner Res 16:925931.
  • 35
    Ma L, Westmore M, Turner CH, Hock J, Vahle J, Sato M 2001 Dramatic skeletal effects of PTH in male and osteopenic ovariectomized rats after 1 year of subcutaneous administration. J Bone Miner Res 16:S1;S292. (abstract)
  • 36
    Jerome CP 1994 Anabolic effect of high doses of human parathyroid hormone (1–38) in mature intact female rats. J Bone Miner Res 9:933942.
  • 37
    Kimmel DB 1996 Animal Models for in vivo experimentation in osteoporosis research. In: MarcusR, FeldmanD, KelseyJ (eds.) Osteoporosis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 671690.
  • 38
    Cosman F, Nieves J, Woelfert L, Gordon S, Shen V, Lindsay R 1998 Parathyroid responsivity in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis during treatment with parathyroid hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:788790.
  • 39
    Nnakwe NE 1995 The effect of aging on bone composition of female Fischer 344 rats. Mech Ageing Dev 85:125131.
  • 40
    Lim SK, Won YJ, Park DH, Shin SH, Yook JI, Lee HC, Huh KB 1999 Intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment can promote linear growth in the ovariectomized growing rat. Yonsei Med J 40:166172.
  • 41
    Sato M, Zeng GQ, Turner CH 1997 Biosynthetic human parathyroid hormone (1–34) effects on bone quality in aged ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 138:43304337.
  • 42
    Compston JE 2001 Sex steroids and bone. Physiol Rev 81:419447.
  • 43
    Zanchetta JR, Bogado C, Ferriti JL, Wang O, Sato M, Gaich GA 2001 Effects of LY333334 [recombinant parathyroid hormone (1–34)] on cortical bone strength indices as assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone 28:S86. (abstract)
  • 44
    Ejersted C, Andreassen TT, Oxlund H, Jorgensen PH, Bak B, Haggblad J, Torring O, Nilsson MH 1993 Human parathyroid hormone (1–34) and (1–84) increase the mechanical strength and thickness of cortical bone in rats. J Bone Miner Res 8:10971101.
  • 45
    Wronski TJ, Yen CF 1994 Anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone on cortical bone in ovariectomized rats. Bone 15:5158.
  • 46
    Suda T, Takahashi N, Martin TJ 1992 Modulation of osteoclast differentiation. Endocr Rev 13:6680.
  • 47
    Turner CH, Burr DB, Hock JM, Brommage R, Sato M 2001 The effects of PTH (1–34) on bone structure and strength in ovariectomized monkeys. In: MajumdarS (ed.) Plenum, New York, NY, USA, pp. 165179.
  • 48
    Gasser JA, Jerome CP 1992 Parathyroid hormone: A cure for osteoporosis? Triangle 31:111121.
  • 49
    Dempster DW, Cosman F, Parisien M, Shen V, Lindsay R 1993 Anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on bone. Endocr Rev 14:690709.
  • 50
    Okimoto N, Tsurukami H, Okazaki Y, Nishida S, Sakai A, Ohnishi H, Hori M, Yasukawa K, Nakamura T 1998 Effects of a weekly injection of human parathyroid hormone (1–34) and withdrawal on bone mass, strength, and turnover in mature ovariectomized rats. Bone 22:523531.
  • 51
    Kishi T, Hagino H, Kishimoto H, Nagashima H 1998 Bone responses at various skeletal sites to human parathyroid hormone in ovariectomized rats: Effects of long-term administration, withdrawal, and readministration. Bone 22:515522.
  • 52
    Mosekilde L, Danielsen CC, Gasser J 1994 The effect on vertebral bone mass and strength of long term treatment with antiresorptive agents (estrogen and calcitonin), human parathyroid hormone-(1–38), and combination therapy, assessed in aged ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 134:21262134.
  • 53
    Kneissel M, Boyde A, Gasser JA 2001 Bone tissue and its mineralization in aged estrogen depleted rats after long-term intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) analog SDZ PTS 893 or human PTH(1–34). Bone 28:237250.
  • 54
    Sato M, Schmidt A, Ma LY, Smith S, Rowley E, Cole H, Westmore M 2001 Dose-dependent PTH effects in young, intact, female rats after 9 months of treatment J Bone Miner Res 16:S1;S292. (abstract)
  • 55
    Stewart AF, Cain RL, Burr DB, Jacob D, Turner CH, Hock JM 2000 Six-month daily administration of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein peptides to adult ovariectomized rats markedly enhances bone mass and biomechanical properties: A comparison of human parathyroid hormone 1–34, parathyroid hormone-related protein 1–36, and SDZ-parathyroid hormone 893. J Bone Miner Res 15:15171525.
  • 56
    Dobnig H, Turner RT 1995 Evidence that intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone increases bone formation in adult rats by activation of bone lining cells. Endocrinology 136:36323638.
  • 57
    Leaffer D, Sweeney M, Kellerman LA, Avnur Z, Krstenansky JL, Vickery BH, Caulfield JP 1995 Modulation of osteogenic cell ultrastructure by RS-23581, an analog of human parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide-(1–34), and bovine PTH-(1–34). Endocrinology 136:36243531.
  • 58
    Onyia JE, Bidwell J, Herring J, Hulman J, Hock JM 1995 In vivo, human parathyroid hormone fragment (hPTH 1–34) transiently stimulates immediate early response gene expression, but not proliferation, in trabecular bone cells of young rats. Bone 17:479484.
  • 59
    Jerome CP, Johnson CS, Vafai HT, Kaplan KC, Bailey J, Capwell B, Fraser F, Hansen L, Ramsay H, Shadoan M, Lees CJ, Thomsen JS, Mosekilde L 1999 Effect of treatment for 6 months with human parathyroid hormone (1–34) peptide in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Bone 25:301309.
  • 60
    Hodsman AB, Steer BM 1993 Early histomorphometric changes in response to parathyroid hormone therapy in osteoporosis: Evidence for de novo bone formation on quiescent cancellous surfaces. Bone 14:523527.
  • 61
    Masiukiewicz US, Insogna KL 1998 The role of parathyroid hormone in the pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aging (Milano) 10:232239.
  • 62
    Whitfield JF, Morley P, Willick GE 1999 The bone-building action of the parathyroid hormone: Implications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Drugs Aging 15:117129.
  • 63
    Heath H III 1996 Primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperparathyroid bone disease, and osteoporosis. In: MarcusR, FeldmanD, KelseyJ (eds.) Osteoporosis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 885897.
  • 64
    Palmer M, Adami HO, Krusemo UB, Ljunghall S 1988 Increased risk of malignant diseases after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. A nationwide cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 127:10311040.
  • 65
    Wermers RA, Khosla S, Atkinson EJ, Grant CS, Hodgson SF, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ III 1998 Survival after the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism: A population-based study. Am J Med 104:115122.
  • 66
    Heath H III, Hodgson SF, Kennedy MA 1980 Primary hyperparathyroidism. Incidence, morbidity, and potential economic impact in a community. N Engl J Med 302:189193.
  • 67
    Mundy GR, Cove DH, Fisken R 1980 Primary hyperparathyroidism: Changes in the pattern of clinical presentation. Lancet 1:13171320.
  • 68
    Wermers RA, Khosla S, Atkinson EJ, Hodgson SF, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ III 1997 The rise and fall of primary hyperparathyroidism: A population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1965–1992. Ann Intern Med 126:433440.
  • 69
    Dorfman HD, Czerniak B 1995 Bone cancers. Cancer 75:203210.
  • 70
    Schipani E, Langman CB, Parfitt AM, Jensen GS, Kikuchi S, Kooh SW, Cole WG, Juppner H 1996 Constitutively activated receptors for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide in Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. N Engl J Med 335:708714.
  • 71
    Mosekilde L, Sogaard CH, Danielsen CC, Torring O 1991 The anabolic effects of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) on rat vertebral body mass are also reflected in the quality of bone, assessed by biomechanical testing: A comparison study between hPTH-(1–34) and hPTH-(1–84). Endocrinology 129:421428.
  • 72
    Potts JT, Bringhurst FR, Gardella T, Nussbaum S, Segre G, Kronenberg H 1995 Parathyroid hormone: Physiology, chemistry, biosynthesis, secretion, metabolism, and mode of action. In: DeGrootLJ (ed.) Endocrinology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 920966.
  • 73
    Divieti P, Inomata N, Chapin K, Singh R, Juppner H, Bringhurst FR 2001 Receptors for the carboxyl-terminal region of PTH(1–84) are highly expressed in osteocytic cells. Endocrinology 142:916925.
  • 74
    Capen CC 1997 Mechanistic data and risk assessment of selected toxic end points of the thyroid gland. Toxicol Pathol 25:3948.
  • 75
    McClain RM 1989 The significance of hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and altered thyroid function in rats: Implications for thyroid gland neoplasia. Toxicol Pathol 17:294306.
  • 76
    Curran PG, DeGroot LJ 1991 The effect of hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs on thyroid hormones and the thyroid gland. Endocr Rev 12:135150.
  • 77
    Ekman L, Hansson E, Havu N, Carlsson E, Lundberg C 1985 Toxicological studies on omeprazole. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 108:5369.
  • 78
    Massoomi F, Savage J, Destache CJ 1993 Omeprazole: A comprehensive review. Pharmacotherapy 13:4659.
  • 79
    Lima BS, Van der Laan JW 2000 Mechanisms of nongenotoxic carcinogenesis and assessment of human hazard. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 32:135143.