• 1
    Promislow JHE, Goodman-Gruen D, Slymen DJ, Barrett-Connor E 2002 Retinol intake and bone mineral density in the elderly: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Bone Miner Res 17:13491358.
  • 2
    Feskanich D, Singh V, Willett WC, Colditz GA 2002 Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA 287:4754.
  • 3
    Freudenheim JL, Johnson NE, Smith EL 1986 Relationships between usual nutrient intake and bone-mineral content of women 35–65 years of age: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 44:863876.
  • 4
    Sowers MR, Wallace R 1990 Retinol, supplemental vitamin A and bone status. J Clin Epidemiol 43:693699.
  • 5
    Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A, Bergstrom R, Holmberg L, Mallmin H, Wolk A, Ljunghall S 1998 Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of hip fracture. Ann Intern Med 12:770778.
  • 6
    Norris J, Harnack L, Carmichael S, Pouane T, Wakimoto P, Block G 1997 US trends in nutrient intake: the 1987 and 1992 national health interview surveys. Am J Publ Health 87:740746.
  • 7
    Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • 8
    Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • 9
    Berner LA, Clydesdale FM, Douglass JS 2001 Fortification contributed greatly to vitamin and mineral intakes in the United States, 1989–1991. J Nutr 131:21772183.
  • 10
    United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 1998 Food and nutrition intakes by individuals in the US, by sex and age, 1994–1996, Nationwide Food Surveys Report 96–2. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DC, USA.
  • 11
    Bendich A, Langseth L 1989 Safety of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr 49:358371.
  • 12
    Hathcock JN, Hattan DG, Jenkins MY, McDonald JT, Saundarisan PR, Wilkening VL 1990 Evaluation of vitamin A toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 52:183202.
  • 13
    Russell R 2000 The vitamin A spectrum: From deficiency to toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 71:878884.
  • 14
    Solomons NW 2001 Vitamin A and carotenoids. In: BowmanBA, RussellRM (eds.) Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 8th ed., ILSI Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 127145.
  • 15
    Krasinski SD, Cohn JS, Schaefer EJ, Russell RM 1990 Postprandial retinyl ester response is greater in older subjects compared with younger subjects. J Clin Invest 65:883892.
  • 16
    Krasinski SD, Russell RM, Otradovec CL, Sadowski JA, Hartz SC, Jacob RA, McGandy RB 1989 Relationship of vitamin A and vitamin E intake to fasting plasma retinol, retinol-binding protein, retinyl esters, carotene, a-tocopherol, and cholesterol among elderly people and young adults: Increased plasdma retinyl esters among vitamin A supplement users. Am J Clin Nutr 49:112120.
  • 17
    Wolbach B 1947 Vitamin A deficiency and excess in relation to skeletal growth. J Bone Joint Surg Br 29:171192.
  • 18
    Johansson S, Lind PM, Hakansson et al. 2002 Subclinical hypervitaminosis A causes fragile bone in rats. Bone (in press)
  • 19
    Rohde CM, Manatt M, Clagett-Dame M, DeLuca HF 1999 Vitamin A antagonizes the action of vitamin D in rats. J Nutr 129:22462250.
  • 20
    Johansson S, Melhus H 2001 Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man. J Bone Miner Res 16:18991905.