• 1
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Nevitt MC, Bauer DC, Genant HK, Haskell WL, Marcus R, Ott SM, Torner JC, Quandt SA, Reiss TF, Ensrud KE 1996 Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Lancet 7:15351541.
  • 2
    Watts NB, Harris ST, Genant HK, Wasnich RD, Miller PD, Jackson RD, Licata AA, Ross P, Woodson GC, Yanover MJ, Mysim J, Kohse L, Rao MB, Steiger P, Chesnut CH 1990 Intermittent cyclical etidronate treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 12:7379.
  • 3
    Harris ST, Watts NB, Genant HK, McKeever CD, Hangartner T, Keller M, Chesnut CH III, Brown J, Eriksen EF, Hoseyni MS, Axelrod DW, Miller PD 1999 Effects of risedronate treatment on vertebral and non vertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: A randomized controlled trial. Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. JAMA 13:13441352.
  • 4
    Chavassieux PM, Arlot ME, Reda C, Wei L, Yates AJ, Meunier PJ 1997 Histomorphometric assessment of the long-term effects of alendronate on bone quality and remodeling in patients with osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 15:14751480.
  • 5
    Schneider PF, Fischer M, Allolio B, Felsenberg D, Schroder U, Semler J, Ittner JR 1999 Alendronate increases bone density and bone strength at the distal radius in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 14:13871393.
  • 6
    Hanley DA, Ioannidis G, Adachi JD 2000 Etidronate therapy in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. J Clin Densitom 3:7995.
  • 7
    Crilly RG, Sebaldt RJ, Hodsman AB, Adachi JD, Brown JP, Goldsmith CH, Hanley DA, Olszynski WO, Ste-Marie LG, Stephenson GF 2000 Predicting subsequent bone density response to intermittent cyclical therapy with etidronate from initial density response in patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 11:607614.
  • 8
    Storm T, Thamsborg G, Steiniche T, Genant HK, Soresen OH 1990 Effect of intermittent cyclical etidronate therapy on the bone mass and fracture rate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 322:12651271.
  • 9
    Barou O, Lafage-Proust MH, Martel C, Thomas T, Tirode F, Laroche N, Barbier A, Alexandre C, Vico L 1999 Bisphosphonate effects in rat unloaded hindlimb bone loss model: Three-dimensional microcomputed tomographic, histomorphometric, and densitometric analyses. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 291:321328.
  • 10
    Parfitt AM 1992 Implications of architecture for the pathogenesis and prevention of vertebral fracture. Bone 13(Suppl 2):4147.
  • 11
    Balena R, Lafage MH, Markatos A, Seedor JG, Rodan GA 1992 The effect of two years alendronate treatment on cortical bone remodeling. J Bone Miner Res 7:S329. (abstract)
  • 12
    Boivin GY, Chavassieux PM, Santora AC, Yates J, Meunier PJ 2000 Alendronate increases bone strength by increasing the mean degree of mineralization of bone tissue in osteoporotic women. Bone 27:687694.
  • 13
    Meunier PJ, Boivin GY 1997 Bone mineral density reflects bone mass but also the degree of mineralization of bone: Therapeutic implications. Bone 21:373377.
  • 14
    Ruegsegger P, Koller B, Müller R 1996 A microtomographic system for the nondestructive evaluation of bone architecture. Calcif Tissue Int 58:2429.
  • 15
    Engelke K, Graeff W, Meiss L, Hahn M, Delling G 1993 High spatial resolution imaging of bone mineral using computed microtomography Comparison with microradiography and undecalcified histologic sections. Invest Radiol 28:341349.
  • 16
    Peyrin F, Salomé M, Nuzzo S, Cloetens P, Laval-Jeantet AM, Baruchel J 2000 Perspectives in Three-dimensional analysis of bone samples using synchrotron radiation μCT. Cell Mol Biol 46:10891102.
  • 17
    Bonse U, Busch F, Gunnewig O, Beckmann F, Pahl R, Delling G, Hahn M, Graeff W 1994 3D computed X-ray tomography of human cancellous bone at 8 microns spatial and 10(−4) energy resolution. Bone Miner 25:2538.
  • 18
    Hipp JA, Simmons CA 1997 Method-based differences in the automated analysis of the three-dimensional morphology of trabecular bone. J Bone Miner Res 12:942947.
  • 19
    Hildebrand T, Rüegsegger P 1997 A new method for the model independent assessment of thickness in three-dimensional images. J Microsc 187:6775.
  • 20
    Kinney JH, Ladd AJ 1998 The relationship between three-dimensional connectivity and the elastic properties of trabecular bone. J Bone Miner Res 13:839845.
  • 21
    Kinney JH, Haupt DL, Balooch M, Ladd AJ, Ryaby JT, Lane NE 2000 Three-dimensional morphometry of the L6 vertebra in the ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis: Biomechanical implications. J Bone Miner Res 15:19811991.
  • 22
    Thomas T, Barou O, Vico L, Alexandre C, Lafage-Proust MH 1999 Recurrence of vertebral fracture with cyclical etidronate therapy in osteoporosis: Histomorphometry and X-ray microanalysis evaluation. J Bone Miner Res 14:198205.
  • 23
    Parfitt AM, Glorieux F, Kannis H, Malluche A, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR 1987 Bone histomorphometry nomenclature symbols and units Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature. J Bone Miner Res 2:595610.
  • 24
    Salomé M, Peyrin F, Cloetens P, Odet C, Laval-Jeantet AM, Baruchel J, Spanne P 1999 A synchrotron radiation microtomography system for the analysis of trabecular bone samples. Med Phys 26:21942204.
  • 25
    Labiche JC, Segura-Purchades J, Van Brussel D, Moy JP 1996 FRELON camera: Fast read low noise. ESRF NewsLetter 25:4143.
  • 26
    Odgaard A 1997 Three-dimensional methods for quantification of cancellous bone architecture. Bone 20:315328.
  • 27
    Odgaard A, Gundersen HJG 1993 Quantification of connectivity in cancellous bone with special emphasis on 3D reconstructions. Bone 14:173182.
  • 28
    Sissons HA, Jowsey J, Stewart L 1960 Quantitative microradiography of bone tissue. In: Engström A, Cosslett V, PatteeH (eds.) X-Ray Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 199205.
  • 29
    Boivin G, Baud CA 1984 Microradiographic methods for calcified tissue. In: Dickson GR (ed.) Methods of Calcified Tissue Preparation, pp. 391412.
  • 30
    Consensus Development Conference Diagnosis 1993 Prohylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med 94:646650.
  • 31
    Mosekilde L, Mosekilde L, Danielsen CC 1987 Biomechanical competence of vertebral trabecular bone in relation to ash density and age in normal individuals. Bone 8:7985.
  • 32
    Wang XD, Masilamani NS, Mabrey JD, Alder ME, Agrawal CM 1998 Changes in the fracture toughness of bone may not be reflected in its mineral density, porosity and tensile properties. Bone 23:6772.
  • 33
    Goldstein SA 1987 The mechanical properties of trabecular bone formed at remodelling sites in normal human iliac trabecular bone: Variations with age and sex. J Biomech 20:10551061.
  • 34
    Thomsen JS, Ebbesen EN, Mosekilde L 1998 Relationships between static histomorphometry and bone strength measurements in human iliac crest bone biopsies. Bone 22:153163.
  • 35
    Melton LJ, Kan SH, Frye MA, Wahner HW, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL 1989 Epidemiology of vertebral fractures in women. Am J Epidemiol 129:10001012.
  • 36
    Goulet RW, Goldstein SA, Ciarelli MJ, Kuhn JL, Brown MB, Feldkamp LA 1994 The relationship between the structural and orthogonal compressive properties of trabecular bone. LA J Biomech 27:375389.
  • 37
    Ulrich D, Van Rietbergen B, Laib A, Rüegsegger PA 1999 The ability of three-dimensional structural indices to reflect mechanical aspects of trabecular bone. Bone 25:5560.
  • 38
    Wachter NJ, Augat P, Mentzel M, Sarkar MR, Krischak GD, Kinzl L, Claes LE 2001 Predictive value of bone mineral density and morphology determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography for cancellous bone strength of the proximal femur. Bone 28:133139.
  • 39
    Beck JD, Canfield BL, Haddock SM, Chen TJH, Kothari M, Keaveny TM 1997 Three-dimensional imaging of trabecular bone using the computer numerically controlled milling technique. Bone 21:281287.
  • 40
    Müller R, Hildebrand T, Rüegsegger P 1994 Non-invasive bone biopsy: a new method to analyze and display the three-dimensional structure of trabecular bone. Phys Med Biol 39:145164.
  • 41
    Lang T, Augat P, Majumdar S, Ouyang X, Genant HK 1998 Noninvasive assessment of bone density and structure using computed tomography and magnetic resonance. Bone 22:149S153S.
  • 42
    Majumdar S, Newitt DC, Jergas MD, Gies AA, Chiu E, Osman D, Keltner J, Keyak JH, Genant HK 1995 Evaluation of technical factors affecting the quantification of trabecular bone structure using magnetic resonance imaging. Bone 17:417430.
  • 43
    Parfitt AM, Mathews CHE, Villanueva AR, Kleerekoper M, Frame B, Rao DS 1983 Relationships between surface, volume, and thickness of iliac trabecular bone in aging and in osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 72:13961409.
  • 44
    Kleerekoper M, Villanueva AR, Stanciu J, Rao DS, Parfitt AM 1985 The role of three-dimensional trabecular microstructure in pathogenesis of vertebral compression fractures. Calcif Tissue Int 37:594597.
  • 45
    DeHoff RT, Aigeltinger EH, Craig KR 1972 Experimental determination of the topological properties of three-dimensional microstructures. J Microsc 95:6991.
  • 46
    Feldkamp LA, Goldstein SA, Parfitt AM, Jesion G, Kleerekoper M 1994 The direct examination of three-dimensional bone architecture in vitro by computed tomography. J Bone Miner Res 4:311.
  • 47
    Ito M, Nakamura T, Matsumoto T, Tsurusaki K, Hayashi K 1998 Analysis of trabecular microarchitecture of human iliac bone using microcomputed tomography in patients with hip arthrosis with or without vertebral fracture. Bone 23:163169.
  • 48
    Müller R, Van Campenhout H, Van Damme B, Van Der Perre G, Dequeker J, Hildebrand T, Ruegsegger P 1998 Morphometric analysis of human bone biopsies: A quantitative structural comparison of histological sections and micro-computed tomography. Bone 23:5966.
  • 49
    Hildebrand T, Laib A, Muller R, Dequeker J, Ruegsegger P 1999 Direct three-dimensional morphometric analysis of human cancellous bone: Microstructural data from spine, femur, iliac crest, and calcaneus. J Bone Miner Res 14:11671174.
  • 50
    Bravenboer N, Papapoulos SE, Holzmann P, Hamdy NA, Netelenbos JC, Lips P 1999 Bone histomorphometric evaluation of pamidronate treatment in clinically manifest osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 9:489493.
  • 51
    Glimcher MJ 1998 The nature of the mineral phase in bone. In: GlimcherMJ (eds.) Metabolic Bone Disease. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 2350.
  • 52
    Lafage MH, Balena R, Battle MA, Shea M, Seedor JG, Klein H, Hayes WC, Rodan GA 1995 Comparison of alendronate and sodium fluoride effects on cancellous and cortical bone in minipigs. A one-year study. J Clin Invest 95:21272133.
  • 53
    Rath NC, Balog JM, Huff WE, Huff GR, Kulkarni GB, Tierce JF 1999 Comparative differences in the composition and biomechanical properties of tibiae of seven- and seventy-two-week-old male and female broiler breeder chickens. Poult Sci 78:12321239.
  • 54
    Wojtowicz A, Dziedzic-Goclawska A, Kaminski A, Stachowicz W, Wojtowicz K, Marks SC Jr, Yamauchi M 1997 Alteration of mineral crystallinity and collagen cross-linking of bones in osteopetrotic toothless (tl/tl) rats and their improvement after treatment with colony stimulating factor-1. Bone 20:127132.
  • 55
    Wassen MH, Lammens J, Tekoppele JM, Sakkers RJ, Liu Z, Verbout AJ, Bank RA 2000 Collagen structure regulates fibril mineralization in osteogenesis as revealed by cross-link patterns in calcifying callus. J Bone Miner Res 15:17761785.