• 1
    Adinoff AD, Hollister JR 1983 Steroid-induced fractures and bone loss in patients with asthma. N Engl J Med 309:265268.
  • 2
    Hahn TJ, Boisseau VC, Avioli LV 1974 Effect of chronic corticosteroid administration on diaphyseal and metaphyseal bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39:274282.
  • 3
    Lukert BP, Raisz LG 1990 Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: Pathogenesis and management. Ann Intern Med 112:352364.
  • 4
    Reid IR, Grey AB 1993 Corticosteroid osteoporosis. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 7:573587.
  • 5
    Center JR, Nguyen TV, Schneider D, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA 1999 Mortality after all major types of osteoporotic fracture in men and women: An observational study. Lancet 353:878882.
  • 6
    Amin S, LaValley MP, Simms RW, Felson DT 1999 The role of vitamin D in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: A meta-analytic approach. Arthritis Rheum 42:17401751.
  • 7
    Cranney A, Welch V, Adachi JD, Homik J, Shea B, Suarez-Almazor ME, Tugwell P, Wells G 2000 1983 Calcitonin for the treatment and prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD00. (computer file)
  • 8
    Homik JE, Cranney A, Shea B, Tugwell P, Wells G, Adachi JD, Suarez-Almazor ME 1999 A meta-analysis on the use of bisphosphonates in corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. J Rheumatol 26:11481157.
  • 9
    Salinas A, Cranney A, Welch V, Shea B, McGowan J, Tugwell P, Wells G 1999 Fluoride therapy in the prevention and treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 42(Suppl 9):S292. (abstract)
  • 10
    Whitehead A, Whitehead J 1991 A general parametric approach to the meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Stat Med 10:16651677.
  • 11
    Poole C, Greenland S 1999 Random-effects meta-analyses are not always conservative. Am J Epidemiol 150:469475.
  • 12
    Liang KY, Zeger SL 1993 Regression analysis for correlated data. Annu Rev Public Health 14:4368.
  • 13
    Carpenter J, Bithell J 2000 Bootstrap confidence intervals: When, which, what? A practical guide for medical statisticians. Stat Med 19:11411164.
  • 14
    Light R, Pillemer DB 1984 Quantitative Procedures: The funnel display. In: Summing Up: The Science of Reviewing Research. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, pp. 6372.
  • 15
    Greenwood CMT, Midgley JP, Matthew AG, Logan AG 1999 Statistical issues in a meta-regression analysis of randomized trials: Impact on the dietary sodium intake and blood pressure relationship. Biometrics 55:630636.
  • 16
    Hedges LV, Olkin O 1985 Estimation of single effect size: Parametric and non-parametric methods. Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 76106.
  • 17
    Hedges LV 1981 Distribution theory for Glass's estimator of effect size and related estimators. J Educ Stat 6:107128.
  • 18
    Follmann D, Elliott P, Suh I, Cutler J 1992 Variance imputation for overviews of clinical trials with continuous response. J Clin Epidemiol 45:769773.
  • 19
    Cohen J 1988 “Small,” “medium,” and “large” d values. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Hillsdale, NJ, USA, pp. 2427.
  • 20
    Altman DG, Andersen PK 1989 Bootstrap investigation of the stability of a Cox regression model. Stat Med 8:771783.
  • 21
    Russell RG, Rogers MJ 1999 Bisphosphonates: From the laboratory to the clinic and back again. Bone 25:97106.
  • 22
    van Beek E, Lowik C, van der Pluijm G, Papapoulos S 1999 The role of geranylgeranylation in bone resorption and its suppression by bisphosphonates in fetal bone explants in vitro: A clue to the mechanism of action of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. J Bone Miner Res 14:722729.
  • 23
    Di Munno O, Beghe F, Favini P, Di Giuseppe P, Pontrandolfo A, Occhipinti G, Pasero G 1989 Prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia: Effect of oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium. Clin Rheumatol 8:202207.
  • 24
    Di Munno O, Pontrandolfo A, Occhipinti G, Pardini N 1990 Prevention of corticosteroid induced bone loss with salmon calcitonin nasal spray. In: ChristiansenC, OvergaardK (eds.) Osteoporosis 1990. Osteopress, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 16111613.
  • 25
    Dykman TR, Haralson KM, Gluck OS, Murphy WA, Teitelbaum SL, Hahn TJ, Hahn BH 1984 Effect of oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium on glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia in patients with rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum 27:13361343.
  • 26
    Gonnelli S, Rottoli P, Cepollaro C, Pondrelli C, Cappiello V, Vagliasindi M, Gennari C 1997 Prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis with alendronate in sarcoid patients. Calcif Tissue Int 61:382385.
  • 27
    Nordborg E, Schaufelberger C, Andersson R, Bosaeus I, Bengtsson BA 1997 The ineffectiveness of cyclical oral clodronate on bone mineral density in glucocorticoid-treated patients with giant-cell arteritis. J Intern Med 242:367371.
  • 28
    Pasero GP, Gennari C, Di Munno O, Agnusdei D, Montagnani M 1985 Calcitonin. In: PecileA (ed.) Prevention of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteopenia by Calcitonin. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 315323.
  • 29
    Rickers H, Deding A, Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Naestoft J 1982 Corticosteroid-induced osteopenia and vitamin D metabolism. Effect of vitamin D2, calcium phosphate and sodium fluoride administration. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 16:409415.
  • 30
    Ringe JD, Welzel D 1987 Salmon calcitonin in the therapy of corticoid-induced osteoporosis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 33:3539.
  • 31
    Vogelsang H, Ferenci P, Resch H, Kiss A, Gangl A 1995 Prevention of bone mineral loss in patients with Crohn's disease by long-term oral vitamin D supplementation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:609614.
  • 32
    Eastell R, Devogelaer JP, Peel NFA, Gill C, Bax DE, Nagant de Deuxchaisnes C, Russell RGG 1996 A double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine the effects of risedronate on bone loss in glucocorticoid-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients. In: PapapoulosSE, et al. (eds.) Osteoporosis 1996. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 391393.
  • 33
    Bernstein CN, Seeger LL, Anton PA, Artinian L, Geffrey S, Goodman W, Belin TR, Shanahan F 1996 A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium supplementation for decreased bone density in corticosteroid-using patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 10:777786.
  • 34
    Braun JJ, Birkenhager-Frenkel DH, Rietveld AH, Juttmann JR, Visser TJ, Birkenhager JC 1983 Influence of 1 alpha-(OH)D3 administration on bone and bone mineral metabolism in patients on chronic glucocorticoid treatment: A double blind controlled study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 19:265273.
  • 35
    Reid IR, Wattie DJ, Evans MC, Stapleton JP 1996 Testosterone therapy in glucocorticoid-treated men. Arch Intern Med 156:11731177.
  • 36
    Grecu EO, Weinshelbaum A, Simmons R 1990 Effective therapy of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with medroxyprogesterone acetate. Calcif Tissue Int 46:294299.
  • 37
    Adami S, Fossaluzza V, Rossini M, Bertoldo F, Gatti D, Zamberlan N, Lo Cascio V 1991 The prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis with nandrolone decanoate. Bone Miner 15:7381.
  • 38
    Lems WF, Jacobs JW, Bijlsma JW, van Veen GJ, Houben HH, Haanen HC, Gerrits MI, van Rijn HJ 1997 Is addition of sodium fluoride to cyclical etidronate beneficial in the treatment of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis? Ann Rheum Dis 56:357363.
  • 39
    Hall GM, Daniels M, Doyle DV, Spector TD 1994 Effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone mass in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with and without steroids. Arthritis Rheum 37:14991505.
  • 40
    Hall GM, Spector TD, Delmas PD 1995 Markers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis. Effects of corticosteroids and hormone replacement therapy. Arthritis Rheum 38:902906.
  • 41
    Gallacher SJ, Anderson K, Fenner JAK, Banham SW, Boyle IT 1993 A comparison of intermittent oral etidronate and intravenous pamidronate in the treatment of corticosteroid-associated osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 52(Suppl 1):S74. (abstract)
  • 42
    Lau CS, Kung A, Chan TM, Wong RWS 1998 Effects of calcitriol versus hormonal replacement therapy in steroid induced osteoporosis in amenorrhoeic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 41(Suppl 9):1620. (abstract)
  • 43
    Warady BD, Lindsley CB, Robinson FG, Lukert BP 1994 Effects of nutritional supplementation on bone mineral status of children with rheumatic diseases receiving corticosteroid therapy. J Rheumatol 21:530535.
  • 44
    Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, Vacek PM, Cooper SM 1996 Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 125:961968.
  • 45
    Healey JH, Paget SA, Williams-Russo P, Szatrowski TP, Schneider R, Spiera H, Mitnick H, Ales K, Schwartzberg P 1996 A randomized controlled trial of salmon calcitonin to prevent bone loss in corticosteroid-treated temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Calcif Tissue Int 58:7380.
  • 46
    Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Bianchi F, Cividino A, Pillersdorf S, Sebaldt RJ, Tugwell P, Gordon M, Steele M, Webber C, Goldsmith CH 1996 Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis: A 3-year follow-up. J Rheumatol 23:9951000.
  • 47
    Valero MA, Loinaz C, Larrodera L, Leon M, Moreno E, Hawkins F 1995 Calcitonin and bisphosphonates treatment in bone loss after liver transplantation. Calcif Tissue Int 57:1519.
  • 48
    Skingle SJ, Moore DJ, Crisp AJ 1997 Cyclical etidronate increases lumbar spine bone density in patients on long-term glucocorticosteroid therapy. Int J Clin Pract 51:364367.
  • 49
    Luengo M, Pons F, Martinez de Osaba MJ, Picado C 1994 Prevention of further bone mass loss by nasal calcitonin in patients on long term glucocorticoid therapy for asthma: A two year follow up study. Thorax 49:10991102.
  • 50
    Worth H, Stammen D, Keck E 1994 Therapy of steroid-induced bone loss in adult asthmatics with calcium, vitamin D, and a diphosphonate. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150:394397.
  • 51
    Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, Kempler S, Nguyen T, Pocock N, Eisman J 1993 Prevention of corticosteroid osteoporosis. A comparison of calcium, calcitriol, and calcitonin. N Engl J Med 328:17471752.
  • 52
    Bijlsma JW, Raymakers JA, Mosch C, Hoekstra A, Derksen RH, Baart de la Faille H, Duursma SA 1988 Effect of oral calcium and vitamin D on glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia. Clin Exp Rheumatol 6:113119.
  • 53
    Luengo M, Picado C, Del Rio L, Guanabens N, Montserrat JM, Setoain J 1990 Treatment of steroid-induced osteopenia with calcitonin in corticosteroid-dependent asthma. A one-year follow-up study. Am Rev Respir Dis 142:104107.
  • 54
    Reid IR, King AR, Alexander CJ, Ibbertson HK 1988 Prevention of steroid-induced osteoporosis with (3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonate (APD). Lancet 1:143146.
  • 55
    Rizzato G, Tosi G, Schiraldi G, Montemurro L, Zanni D, Sisti S 1988 Bone protection with salmon calcitonin (sCT) in the long-term steroid therapy of chronic sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis 5:99103.
  • 56
    Guaydier-Souquieres G, Kotzki PO, Sabatier JP, Basse-Cathalinat B, Loeb G 1996 In corticosteroid-treated respiratory diseases, monofluorophosphate increases lumbar bone density: A double-masked randomized study. Osteoporos Int 6:171177.
  • 57
    Rizzoli R, Chevalley T, Slosman DO, Bonjour JP 1995 Sodium monofluorophosphate increases vertebral bone mineral density in patients with corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 5:3946.
  • 58
    Lippuner K, Haller B, Casez JP, Montandon A, Jaeger P 1996 Effect of disodium monofluorophosphate, calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in patients chronically treated with glucocorticosteroids: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Miner Electrolyte Metab 22:207213.
  • 59
    Lakatos P, Kiss L, Horvath C, Takacs I, Foldes J, Bossanyi A, Buzas E, Major T 1996 Glukokortikoidok okozla csontvestes merseklese alfacalcidollal (Prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis with alphacalcidol). Lege Artis Med 6:624629.
  • 60
    Garcia-Delgado I, Prieto S, Gil-Fraguas L, Robles E, Rufilanchas JJ, Hawkins F 1997 Calcitonin, etidronate, and calcidiol treatment in bone loss after cardiac transplantation. Calcif Tissue Int 60:155159.
  • 61
    Talalaj M, Gradowska L, Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Durlik M, Gaciong Z, Lao M 1996 Efficiency of preventive treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcium in kidney transplant patients. Transplant Proc 28:34853487.
  • 62
    Schaadt OP, Bohr HH 1986 Alfacalcidol in prednisone treatment -a controlled study of effect on bone mineral content in lumbar spine, femoral neck and shaft. Calcif Tissue Int 39(Suppl):A58. (abstract)
  • 63
    Pitt P, Li F, Todd P, Webber D, Pack S, Moniz C 1998 A double-blind placebo controlled study to determine the effects of intermittent cyclical etidronate on bone mineral density in patients on long term oral corticosteroid treatment. Thorax 53:351356.
  • 64
    Lems WF, Jacobs WG, Bijlsma JW, Croone A, Haanen HC, Houben HH, Gerrits MI, van Rijn HJ 1997 Effect of sodium fluoride on the prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 7:575582.
  • 65
    Emkey R, Shen V, Lyssy J, Dempster DW, Lindsay R 1994 A prospective, randomized study of vitamin D and calcium in the treatment of steroid induced osteoporosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 37(Suppl 9):S183. (abstract)
  • 66
    Emkey R, Procaccini R, Gaich G 1994 The effect of calcitonin on bone mass in steroid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 37(Suppl 9):S183. (abstract)
  • 67
    Kotaniemi A, Piirainen H, Paimela L, Leirisalo-Repo M, Uoti-Reilama K, Lahdentausta P, Ruotsalainen P, Kataja M, Vaisanen E, Kurki P 1996 Is continuous intranasal salmon calcitonin effective in treating axial bone loss in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis receiving low dose glucocorticoid therapy? J Rheumatol 23:18751879.
  • 68
    Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Bell MJ, Bianchi FA, Cividino AA, Craig GL, Sturtridge WC, Sebaldt RJ, Steele M, Gordon M, Themeles E, Tugwell P, Roberts R, Gent M 1997 Salmon calcitonin nasal spray in the prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Br J Rheumatol 36:255159.
  • 69
    Jenkins EA, Walker-Bone KE, Wood A, McCrae FC, Cooper C, Cawley MI 1999 The prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss with intermittent cyclical etidronate. Scand J Rheumatol 28:152156.
  • 70
    Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Brown J, Hanley D, Hodsman A, Josse R, Kendler DL, Lentle B, Olszynski W, Ste-Marie LG, Tenenhouse A, Chines AA 1997 Intermittent etidronate therapy to prevent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 337:382387.
  • 71
    Roux C, Oriente P, Laan R, Hughes RA, Ittner J, Goemaere S, Di Munno O, Pouilles JM, Horlait S, Cortet B 1998 Randomized trial of effect of cyclical etidronate in the prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss. Ciblos Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:11281133.
  • 72
    Saag KG, Emkey R, Schnitzer TJ, Brown JP, Hawkins F, Goemaere S, Thamsborg G, Liberman UA, Delmas PD, Malice M-P, Czachur M, Daifotis AG 1998 Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 339:292299.
  • 73
    Christensen RS, Alex NH, Perloff JJ, Georgitis WJ, McDermott MT 1995 Coherence therapy for steroid-induced osteoporosis, one-year report. 77th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Washington, DC, USA (abstract).
  • 74
    Wolfhagen FH, van Buuren HR, den Ouden JW, Hop WC, van Leeuwen JP, Schalm SW, Pols HA 1997 Cyclical etidronate in the prevention of bone loss in corticosteroid-treated primary biliary cirrhosis. A prospective, controlled pilot study. J Hepatol 26:325330.
  • 75
    Fan SL, Almond MK, Ball E, Evans K, Cunningham J 2000 Pamidronate therapy as prevention of bone loss following renal transplantation. Kidney Int 57:684690.
  • 76
    Reginster JY, Kuntz D, Verdickt W, Wouters M, Guillevin L, Menkes CJ, Nielsen K 1999 Prophylactic use of alfacalcidol in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 9:7581.
  • 77
    Boutsen Y, Jamart J, Esselinckx W, Stoffel M, Devogelaer JP 1997 Primary prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with intermittent intravenous pamidronate: A randomized trial. Calcif Tissue Int 61:266271.
  • 78
    Geusens P, Dequeker J, Vanhoof J, Stalmans R, Boonen S, Joly J, Nijs J, Raus J 1998 Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 57:724727.
  • 79
    Herrala J, Puolijoki H, Liippo K, Raitio M, Impivaara O, Tala E, Nieminen MM 1998 Clodronate is effective in preventing corticosteroid-induced bone loss among asthmatic patients. Bone 22:577582.
  • 80
    Grotz WH, Rump LC, Niessen A, Schmidt-Gayk H, Reichelt A, Kirste G, Olschewski M, Schollmeyer PJ 1998 Treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 66:10041008.
  • 81
    Diamond T, McGuigan L, Schonell M, Levy S, Rae D 1997 A 2 year open randomized controlled trial comparing calcitriol to cyclic etidronate for the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 12:S1;S511. (abstract)
  • 82
    Cohen S, Levy RM, Keller M, Boling E, Emkey RD, Greenwald M, Zizic TM, Wallach S, Sewell KL, Lukert BP, Axelrod DW, Chines AA 1999 Risedronate therapy prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss: A twelve-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Arthritis Rheum 42:23092318.
  • 83
    Reid DM, Hughes RA, Laan RF, Sacco-Gibson NA, Wenderoth DH, Adami S, Eusebio RA, Devogelaer JP 2000 Efficacy and safety of daily risedronate in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in men and women: A randomized trial. European Corticosteroid-Induced Osteoporosis Treatment Study. J Bone Miner Res 15:10061103.
  • 84
    Bohning W, Ringe JD, Welzel D, Bode V 1990 Intranasal salmon calcitonin for the prophylaxis of bone mineral loss in steroid-treated chronic obstructive lung diseases. Arzneimittelforschung 40:10001003.
  • 85
    Charlwood C, Manning EMC, Robinson J, Fraser WD 1997 Comparison of pamidronate, calcitonin and cyclic etidronate in the treatment of osteoporosis associated with steroid therapy. J Bone Miner Res 12:S1;S510. (abstract)
  • 86
    Bernecker PM, Neiger E, Pietschmann P, Willvonseder R, Resch H 1996 Cyclic clodronate versus continuous monofluoro-phosphate therapy for treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 39(Suppl):662. (abstract)
  • 87
    Sambrook P, Henderson NK, Keogh A, MacDonald P, Glanville A, Spratt P, Bergin P, Ebeling P, Eisman J 2000 Effect of calcitriol on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation. J Bone Miner Res 15:18181824.
  • 88
    Henderson K, Eisman J, Keogh A, MacDonald P, Glanville A, Spratt P, Sambrook P 2001 Protective effect of short-term calcitriol or cyclical etidronate on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation. J Bone Miner Res 16:565571.
  • 89
    Ringe JD, Coster A, Meng T, Schacht E, Umbach R 1999 Treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with alfacalcidol/calcium versus vitamin D/calcium. Calcif Tissue Int 65:337340.
  • 90
    Shiraishi A, Higashi S, Ohkawa H, Kubodera N, Hirasawa T, Ezawa I, Ikeda K, Ogata E 1999 The advantage of alfacalcidol over vitamin D in the treatment of osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 65:311316.
  • 91
    Eastell R, Devogelaer JP, Peel NF, Chines AA, Bax DE, Sacco-Gibson N, Nagant de Deuxchaisnes C, Russell RG 2000 Prevention of bone loss with risedronate in glucocorticoid-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients. Osteoporos Int 11:331337.
  • 92
    Lane NE, Sanchez S, Modin GW, Genant HK, Pierini E, Arnaud CD 2000 Bone mass continues to increase at the hip after parathyroid hormone treatment is discontinued in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Bone Miner Res 15:944951.
  • 93
    Riggs BL, Hodgson SF, O'Fallon WM, Chao EY, Wahner HW, Muhs JM, Cedel SL, Melton LJ III 1990 Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 322:802809.