• 1
    Frost HM 1997 On our age-related bone loss: Insights from a new paradigm. J Bone Miner Res 12:15391546.
  • 2
    Fujimura R, Ashizawa N, Watanabe M, Mukai N, Amagai H, Fukubayashi T, Hayashi K, Tokuyama K, Suzuki M 1997 Effect of resistance exercise training on bone formation and resorption in young male subjects assessed by biomarkers of bone metabolism. J Bone Miner Res 12:656662.
  • 3
    Mosekilde Li 1995 Osteoporosis and exercise. Bone 17:193195.
  • 4
    Notomi T, Okimoto N, Okazaki Y, Tanaka Y, Nakamura T, Suzuki M 2001 Effects of tower climbing exercise on bone mass, strength and turnover in growing rats. J Bone Miner Res 16:166174.
  • 5
    Yeh JK, Aloia JF, Tierney JM, Sprintz S 1993 Effect of treadmill exercise on vertebral and tibial bone mineral content and bone mineral density in the aged rat: determined by dural energy X-ray absorptiometry. Calcif Tissue Int 52:234238.
  • 6
    Newhall KM, Rodnick KJ, van der Meulen MC, Carter DR, Marcus R 1991 Effects of voluntary exercise on bone mineral content in rats. J Bone Miner Res 6:289296.
  • 7
    Notomi T, Lee SJ, Okimoto N, Okazaki Y, Takamoto T, Nakamura T, Suzuki M 2000 Effects of resistance exercise training on mass, strength, and turnover of bone in growing rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 82:268274.
  • 8
    Peng Q, Tuukkanene J, Vaananenen HK 1994 Exercise can provide protection against bone loss and prevent the decrease in mechanical strength of femoral neck in ovariectomized rats. J Bone Miner Res 9:15591564.
  • 9
    Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S 1998 Effects of exercise on bone mineral density in mature osteopenic rats. J Bone Miner Res 13:13081317.
  • 10
    Pohlman RL, Darby LA, Lechner AJ 1985 Morphometry and calcium contents in appendicular and axial bones of exercised ovariectomized rats. Am J Physiol 248:R12R17.
  • 11
    Honda A, Umemura Y, Nagasawa S 2001 Effect of high-impact and low-repetition training on bones in ovariectomized rats. 16:16881693.
  • 12
    Chen JL, Yao W, Frost HM, Li CY, Setterberg RB, Jee WSS 2001 Bipedal stance exercise enhances antiresorption effects of estrogen and counteracts its inhibitory effect on bone formation in sham and ovariectomized rats. Bone 29:126133.
  • 13
    Ohnishi H, Nakamura T, Narusawa K, Murakami H, Abe M, Barbier A, Suzuki K 1997 Bisphosphonate tiludronate increases bone strength by improving mass and structure in established osteopenia after ovariectomy in rats. Bone 21:335343.
  • 14
    Tsurukami H, Nakamura T, Suzuki K, Sato K, Higuchi Y, Nishii Y 1994 A novel synthetic vitamin D analogue, 2β-(3-hydroxypropoxy) 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (ED-71), increases bone mass by stimulating the bone formation in normal and ovariectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 54:142149.
  • 15
    Parfitt AM, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Muenier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR 1987 Bone histomorphometry: Standardization of nomenclature, symbols and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res 2:595610.
  • 16
    Parfitt AM, Mathews CH, Villanueva AR, Kleerkoper M, Frame B, Rao DS 1983 Relationship between surface, volume, and thickness of iliac trabecular bone in aging and in osteoporosis: Implications for the micro anatomic and cellular mechanisms for bone loss. J Clin Invest 72:13961409.
  • 17
    Frost HM 1983 Bone histomorphometry: Analysis of trabecular bone dynamics. In: ReckerRR (ed.) Bone Histomorphometry: Techniques and Interpretations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 109131.
  • 18
    Murakami H, Nakamura T, Tsurukami H, Abe M, Barbier A, Suzuki K 1994 Effect of tiludronate on bone mass, structure, and turn over at the epiphyseal, primary, and secondary spongiosa in the proximal tibia of growing rats after sciatic neurectomy. J Bone Miner Res 9:13551364.
  • 19
    Yeh KJ, Liu CC, Aloia JF 1993 Additive effect of treadmill exercise and 17 beta-estradiol replacement on prevention of tibial bone loss in adult ovariectomized rat. J Bone Miner Res 8:677683.
  • 20
    Okimoto N, Tsurukami H, Okazaki Y, Nishida S, Sakai A, Ohnishi H, Hori M, Yasukawa K, Nakamura T 1998 Effects of a weekly injection of human parathyroid hormone (1–34) and withdrawal on bone mass, strength, and turnover in mature ovariectomized rats. Bone 22:523531.
  • 21
    Robling AG, Hinant FM, Burr DB, Turner CH 2002 Shorter, more frequent mechanical loading sessions enhance bone mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:196202.
  • 22
    Robling AG, Burr DB, Turner CH 2001 Recovery periods restore mechanosensitivity to dynamically loaded bone. J Exp Biol 204:33893399.
  • 23
    Ducy P, Amling M, Takeda S, Priemel M, Schilling AF, Beil FT, Shen J, Vinson C, Rueger JM, Karsenty G 2000 Leptin inhibits bone formation through a hypothalamic relay: A central control of bone mass. Cell 100:197207.
  • 24
    Friedman JM, Halaas JL 1998 Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 395:763770.
  • 25
    Maffei M, Halas J, Ravussin E, Pratley RE, Lee GH, Zhang Y, Fei H, Kim S, Lallone R, Ranganathan S 1995 Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects. Nat Med 1:11511161.
  • 26
    Nelson ME, Fiatrone MA, Morganti CM, Trice I, Greenberg RA, Evans WJ 1994 Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteopenic fractures: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 272:19091914.
  • 27
    Ryan AS, Treuth MS, Hunter GR, Elahi D 1998 Resistive training maintains bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 62:295299.
  • 28
    Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S 2001 Effects of exercise training and detraining on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Orthop Sci 6:128132.
  • 29
    Kerr S, Ackland T, Maslen B, Morton A, Prince R 2001 Resistance training over 2 years increases bone mass in calcium-replete postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 16:175181.