Mutations in Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have been shown to segregate with familial Paget's disease of bone (PDB). We examined the coding sequence of SQSTM1 in five PDB pedigrees and found three novel mutations clustered around the C-terminal ubiquitin associated domain. Disruptions of the C-terminal domain of SQSTM1 seem to be a leading cause of familial PDB.
Introduction: The characteristic features of Paget's disease of bone (PDB) are caused by focal areas of excessive and uncoordinated bone remodeling. A total of seven genetic loci (PDB1-PDB7) have been reported to be associated with the disease. The gene for Sequestosome 1 (p62; SQSTM1) has been identified as the causative gene for PDB3 in numerous French-Canadian families and families predominantly of British descent. To date, a total of three mutations, all affecting the ubiquitin-associated domain of SQSTM1, have been identified: a single 1215 C to T (P392L) transversion in exon 8, a T insertion in exon 8 (E396X), and a G to A mutation at the splice junction of exon 7 (IVS7 + 1).
Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from blood collected from the members of five U.S. PDB pedigrees. Mutation analysis of the coding sequence of the SQSTM1 gene was performed on the proband and other key individuals in the pedigrees.
Results: Four of the five families had SQSTM1 mutations. Three of these mutations were novel: a single base deletion in exon 8 at position 1210 (1210delT) resulting in a premature stop codon at amino acid 394, a single C deletion in exon 8 at position 1215 (1215delC) also resulting in a premature stop codon at amino acid 394, and a single 1200 C to T (P387L) transversion in exon 7.
Conclusion: Noteworthy is the fact that these three SQSTM1 mutations, in addition to the three previously described mutations, are clustered near the C-terminal of the protein. These mutations may be acting in a dominant-negative fashion to disrupt the ubiquitin-binding function, which could result in abnormal activation of the NF-κB pathway and the subsequent activation of the osteoclasts. These findings imply that SQSTM1 mutations may play a role in the majority of familial PDB in the United States.