• 1
    Melton LJ III 1988 Epidemiology of fractures. In: RiggsBL, LawrenceB, MeltonLJ (eds.) Osteoporosis: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management. Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, pp 133149.
  • 2
    Landin LA 1983 Fracture patterns in children. Analysis of 8, 682 fractures with special reference to incidence, etiology and secular changes in a Swedish urban population 1950–1979. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 202:1109.
  • 3
    Worlock P, Stower M 1986 Fracture patterns in Nottingham children. J Pediatr Orthop 6:656660.
  • 4
    Bailey DA, Wedge JH, McCulloch RG, Martin AD, Bernhardson SC 1989 Epidemiology of fractures of the distal end of the radius in children as associated with growth. J Bone Joint Surg Am 71:12251231.
  • 5
    Cheng JC, Ng BK, Ying SY, Lam PK 1999 A 10-year study of the changes in the pattern and treatment of 6, 493 fractures. J Pediatr Orthop 19:344350.
  • 6
    Jones G, Cooley H 2002 Symptomatic fracture incidence in those under 50 years of age in southern Tasmania. J Paediatr Child Health 38:278283.
  • 7
    Krabbe S, Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Transbol I 1979 Effect of puberty on rates of bone growth and mineralisation: With observations in male delayed puberty. Arch Dis Child 54:950953.
  • 8
    Bijur PE, Trumble A, Harel Y, Overpeck MD, Jones D, Scheidt PC 1995 Sports and recreation injuries in US children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149:10091016.
  • 9
    Cook SD, Harding AF, Morgan EL, Doucet HJ, O'Brien M, Thomas KA 1987 Association of bone mineral density and pediatric fractures. J Pediatr Orthop 7:424427.
  • 10
    Bar-Or O 1996 The Child and Adolescent Athlete: International Olympic Committee Medical Commission Publication. Blackwell Science, London, UK.
  • 11
    Goulding A, Cannan R, Williams SM, Gold EJ, Taylor RW, Lewis-Barned NJ 1998 Bone mineral density in girls with forearm fractures. J Bone Miner Res 13:143148.
  • 12
    Goulding A, Jones IE, Taylor RW, Williams SM, Manning PJ 2001 Bone mineral density and body composition in boys with distal forearm fractures: A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study. J Pediatr 139:509515.
  • 13
    Ma D, Jones G 2003 The association between bone mineral density, metacarpal morphometry and upper limb fractures in children: A population based case-control study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:14861491.
  • 14
    Bradney M, Pearce G, Naughton G, Sullivan C, Bass S, Beck T, Carlson J, Seeman E 1998 Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: Changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength. A controlled prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 13:18141821.
  • 15
    Fuchs RK, Bauer JJ, Snow CM 2001 Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 16:148156.
  • 16
    Sundberg M, Gardsell P, Johnell O, Karlsson MK, Ornstein E, Sandstedt B, Sernbo I 2001 Peripubertal moderate exercise increases bone mass in boys but not in girls: A population-based intervention study. Osteoporos Int 12:230238.
  • 17
    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH 2000 Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ 320:12401243.
  • 18
    Aaron DJ, Kriska AM, Dearwater SR, Cauley JA, Metz KF, LaPorte RE 1995 Reproducibility and validity of an epidemiologic questionnaire to assess past year physical activity in adolescents. Am J Epidemiol 142:191201.
  • 19
    Jones G, Scott FS 1999 Smoking and bone mass in premenopausal parous women: Effect of body mass index, breastfeeding and sports participation. J Bone Miner Res 14:16281633.
  • 20
    Eisenmann JC, Bartee RT, Wang MQ 2002 Physical activity, TV viewing, and weight in U.S. youth: 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Obes Res 10:379385.
  • 21
    Johnson JG, Cohen P, Smailes EM, Kasen S, Brook JS 2002 Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science 295:24682471.
  • 22
    Ozmert E, Toyran M, Yurdakok K 2002 Behavioral correlates of television viewing in primary school children evaluated by the child behavior checklist. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156:910914.
  • 23
    Jones G, Hynes K, Dalais F, Parameswaran V, Greenaway T, Dwyer T 2002 Factors associated with bone turnover and short term growth in adolescent boys. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Scientific Meeting of Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society. Glenelg, Adelaide, Australia, p. 53.
  • 24
    Janz KF, Levy SM, Burns TL, Torner JC, Willing MC, Warren JJ 2002 Fatness, physical activity, and television viewing in children during the adiposity rebound period: The Iowa bone development study. Prev Med 35:563571.
  • 25
    Loder RT, Warschausky S, Schwartz EM, Hensinger RN, Greenfield ML 1995 The psychosocial characteristics of children with fractures. J Pediatr Orthop 15:4146.
  • 26
    Gregg EW, Pereira MA, Caspersen CJ 2000 Physical activity, falls, and fractures among older adults: A review of the epidemiologic evidence. J Am Geriatr Soc 48:883893.
  • 27
    Gregg EW, Cauley JA, Seeley DG, Ensrud KE, Bauer DC 1998 Physical activity and osteoporotic fracture risk in older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 129:8188.
  • 28
    Bijur PE, Trumble A, Harel Y, Overpeck MD, Jones D, Scheidt PC 1995 Sports and recreation injuries in US children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149:10091016.
  • 29
    Wyshak G, Frisch RE 1994 Carbonated beverages, dietary calcium, the dietary calcium/phosphorus ratio, and bone fractures in girls and boys. J Adolesc Health 15:210215.
  • 30
    Petridou E, Karpathios T, Dessypris N, Simou E, Trichopoulos D 1997 The role of dairy products and non alcoholic beverages in bone fractures among school age children. Scand J Soc Med Suppl 25:119125.
  • 31
    Routley V 1991 Sport injuries in children—the five most commonly presented sports. In: Victorian Injury Surveillance System, 9th ed. Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 15.
  • 32
    Patel DR, Luckstead EF 2000 Sport participation, risk taking, and health risk behaviors. Adolesc Med 11:141155.
  • 33
    Ma DQ, Jones G 2002 Clinical risk factors but not bone density are associated with prevalent fractures in prepubertal children. J Paediatr Child Health 38:497500.
  • 34
    Booth ML, Okely AD, Chey T, Baumann AE, Macaskill P 2002 Epidemiology of physical activity participation among NSW school students. Aust NZ J Public Health 26:371372.