• 1
    Schmitt JM, Hwang K, Winn SR, Hollinger JO 1999 Bone morphogenetic proteins: An update on basic biology and clinical relevance. J Orthop Res 17:269278.
  • 2
    Yamaguchi A 1995 Regulation of differentiation pathway of skeletal mesenchymal cells in cell lines by transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. Semin Cell Dev Biol 6:165173.
  • 3
    Gazzerro E, Gangji V, Canalis E 1998 Bone morphogenetic proteins induce the expression of noggin, which limits their activity in cultured rat osteoblasts. J Clin Invest 102:21062114.
  • 4
    Hay E, Hott M, Graulet AM, Lomri A, Marie PJ 1999 Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on human neonatal calvaria cell differentiation. J Cell Biochem 72:8193.
  • 5
    Hughes FJ, Collyer J, Stanfield M, Goodman SA 1995 The effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2, -4, and -6 on differentiation of rat osteoblast cells in vitro. Endocrinology 136:26712677.
  • 6
    Kretzschmar M, Liu F, Hata A, Doody J, Massague J 1997 The TGF-beta family mediator Smad1 is phosphorylated directly and activated functionally by the BMP receptor kinase. Genes Dev 11:984995.
  • 7
    Nishimura R, Kato Y, Chen D, Harris SE, Mundy GR, Yoneda T 1998 Smad5 and DPC4 are key molecules in mediating BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation of the pluripotent mesenchymal precursor cell line C2C12. J Biol Chem 273:18721879.
  • 8
    Yamamoto N, Akiyama S, Katagiri T, Namiki M, Kurokawa T, Suda T 1997 Smad1 and smad5 act downstream of intracellular signalings of BMP-2 that inhibits myogenic differentiation and induces osteoblast differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 238:574580.
  • 9
    Heldin CH, Miyazono K, ten Dijke P 1997 TGF-beta signalling from cell membrane to nucleus through SMAD proteins. Nature 390:465471.
  • 10
    Garrington TP, Johnson GL 1999 Organization and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Curr Opin Cell Biol 11:211218.
  • 11
    Cobb MH 1999 MAP kinase pathways. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 71:479500.
  • 12
    Tibbles LA, Woodgett JR 1999 The stress-activated protein kinase pathways. Cell Mol Life Sci 55:12301254.
  • 13
    Ip YT, Davis RJ 1998 Signal transduction by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-from inflammation to development. Curr Opin Cell Biol 10:205219.
  • 14
    Zhang Y, Feng XH, Derynck R 1998 Smad3 and Smad4 cooperate with c-Jun/c-Fos to mediate TGF-beta-induced transcription. Nature 394:909913.
  • 15
    Liberati NT, Datto MB, Frederick JP, Shen X, Wong C, Rougier-Chapman EM, Wang XF 1999 Smads bind directly to the Jun family of AP-1 transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:48444849.
  • 16
    Sano Y, Harada J, Tashiro S, Gotoh-Mandeville R, Maekawa T, Ishii S 1999 ATF-2 is a common nuclear target of Smad and TAK1 pathways in transforming growth factor-beta signaling. J Biol Chem 274:89498957.
  • 17
    Gallea S, Lallemand F, Atfi A, Rawadi G, Ramez V, Spinella-Jaegle S, Kawai S, Faucheu C, Huet L, Baron R, Roman-Roman S 2001 Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades is involved in regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced osteoblast differentiation in pluripotent C2C12 cells. Bone 28:491498.
  • 18
    Vinals F, Lopez-Rovira T, Rosa JL, Ventura F 2002 Inhibition of PI3K/p70 S6K and p38 MAPK cascades increases osteoblastic differentiation induced by BMP-2. FEBS Lett 510:99104.
  • 19
    Lai CF, Cheng SL 2002 Signal transductions induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-beta in normal human osteoblastic cells. J Biol Chem 277:1551415522.
  • 20
    Elford PR, Felix R, Cecchini M, Trechsel U, Fleisch H 1987 Murine osteoblast-like cells and the osteogenic cell MC3T3-E1 release a macrophage colony-stimulating activity in culture. Calcif Tissue Int 41:151156.
  • 21
    Sudo H, Kodama HA, Amagai Y, Yamamoto S, Kasai S 1983 In vitro differentiation and calcification in a new clonal osteogenic cell line derived from newborn mouse calvaria. J Cell Biol 96:191198.
  • 22
    Caverzasio J, Palmer G, Suzuki A, Bonjour JP 1997 Mechanism of the mitogenic effect of fluoride on osteoblast-like cells: Evidences for a G protein-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation process. J Bone Miner Res 12:19751983.
  • 23
    Suzuki A, Guicheux J, Palmer G, Miura Y, Oiso Y, Bonjour JP, Caverzasio J 2002 Evidence for a role of p38 MAP kinase in expression of alkaline phosphatase during osteoblastic cell differentiation. Bone 30:9198.
  • 24
    Thiede MA, Yoon K, Golub EE, Noda M, Rodan GA 1988 Structure and expression of rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) alkaline phosphatase: Product of a single copy gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:319323.
  • 25
    Ikegame M, Ishibashi O, Yoshizawa T, Shimomura J, Komori T, Ozawa H, Kawashima H 2001 Tensile stress induces bone morphogenetic protein 4 in preosteoblastic and fibroblastic cells, which later differentiate into osteoblasts leading to osteogenesis in the mouse calvariae in organ culture. J Bone Miner Res 16:2432.
  • 26
    Haendler B, Hofer-Warbinek R, Hofer E 1987 Complementary DNA for human T-cell cyclophilin. EMBO J 6:947950.
  • 27
    Takuwa Y, Ohse C, Wang EA, Wozney JM, Yamashita K 1991 Bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulates alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis in cultured osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 174:96101.
  • 28
    Hiraki Y, Inoue H, Shigeno C, Sanma Y, Bentz H, Rosen DM, Asada A, Suzuki F 1991 Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2 and BMP-3) promote growth and expression of the differentiated phenotype of rabbit chondrocytes and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. J Bone Miner Res 6:13731385.
  • 29
    Yamaguchi A, Komori T, Suda T 2000 Regulation of osteoblast differentiation mediated by bone morphogenetic proteins, hedgehogs, and Cbfa1. Endocr Rev 21:393411.
  • 30
    Liverton NJ, Butcher JW, Claiborne CF, Claremon DA, Libby BE, Nguyen KT, Pitzenberger SM, Selnick HG, Smith GR, Tebben A, Vacca JP, Varga SL, Agarwal L, Dancheck K, Forsyth AJ, Fletcher DS, Frantz B, Hanlon WA, Harper CF, Hofsess SJ, Kostura M, Lin J, Luell S, O'Neill EA, O'Keefe SJ, Dreville CJ, Pang M, Parsons J, Rolando A, Sahly Y, Visco DM 1999 Design and synthesis of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable tetrasubstituted imidazole inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Med Chem 42:21802190.
  • 31
    Macfarlane WM, Smith SB, James RF, Clifton AD, Doza YN, Cohen P, Docherty K 1997 The p38/reactivating kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade mediates the activation of the transcription factor insulin upstream factor 1 and insulin gene transcription by high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem 272:2093620944.
  • 32
    Bennett BL, Sasaki DT, Murray BW, O'Leary EC, Sakata ST, Xu W, Leisten JC, Motiwala A, Pierce S, Satoh Y, Bhagwat SS, Manning AM, Anderson DW 2001 SP600125, an anthrapyrazolone inhibitor of Jun N-terminal kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:1368113686.
  • 33
    Wang X, Tokuda H, Hirade K, Kozawa O 2002 Stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a part in endothelin-1-induced vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis in osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem 87:417423.
  • 34
    Ghosh-Choudhury N, Abboud SL, Nishimura R, Celeste A, Mahimainathan L, Choudhury GG 2002 Requirement of BMP-2-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt serine/threonine kinase in osteoblast differentiation and Smad-dependent BMP-2 gene transcription. J Biol Chem 277:3336133368.
  • 35
    Kozawa O, Hatakeyama D, Uematsu T 2002 Divergent regulation by p44/p42 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase of bone morphogenetic protein-4-stimulated osteocalcin synthesis in osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem 84:583589.
  • 36
    Higuchi C, Myoui A, Hashimoto N, Kuriyama K, Yoshioka K, Yoshikawa H, Itoh K 2002 Continuous inhibition of MAPK signaling promotes the early osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of the extracellular matrix. J Bone Miner Res 17:17851794.
  • 37
    Suzuki A, Palmer G, Bonjour JP, Caverzasio J 1999 Regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity by p38 MAP kinase in response to activation of Gi protein-coupled receptors by epinephrine in osteoblast-like cells. Endocrinology 140:31773182.
  • 38
    Shaulian E, Karin M 2001 AP-1 in cell proliferation and survival. Oncogene 20:23902400.
  • 39
    Komori T, Yagi H, Nomura S, Yamaguchi A, Sasaki K, Deguchi K, Shimizu Y, Bronson RT, Gao YH, Inada M, Sato M, Okamoto R, Kitamura Y, Yoshiki S, Kishimoto T 1997 Targeted disruption of Cbfa1 results in a complete lack of bone formation owing to maturational arrest of osteoblasts. Cell 89:755764.
  • 40
    Otto F, Thornell AP, Crompton T, Denzel A, Gilmour KC, Rosewell IR, Stamp GW, Beddington RS, Mundlos S, Olsen BR, Selby PB, Owen MJ 1997 Cbfa1, a candidate gene for cleidocranial dysplasia syndrome, is essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone development. Cell 89:765771.
  • 41
    Nakashima K, Zhou X, Kunkel G, Zhang Z, Deng JM, Behringer RR, de Crombrugghe B 2002 The novel zinc finger-containing transcription factor osterix is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Cell 108:1729.