• 1
    Seeman E 1999 Osteoporosis in men. Osteoporos Int 9(Suppl 2):S97S110.
  • 2
    Orwoll ES 2000 Osteoporosis in men. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes 7:303309.
  • 3
    Amin S, Felson DT 2001 Osteoporosis in men. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 27:1947.
  • 4
    Pande I, Francis RM 2001 Osteoporosis in men. Best Prac Res Clin Rheumatol 15:415427.
  • 5
    Mussolino ME, Looker AC, Madans JH, Langlois JA, Orwoll ES 1998 Risk factors for hip fracture in white men: The NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. J Bone Miner Res 13:918924.
  • 6
    Poor G, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ III 1995 Predictors of hip fractures in elderly men. J Bone Miner Res 10:19001907.
  • 7
    Cooper C, Campion G, Melton LJ III 1992 Hip fractures in the elderly: A world-wide projection. Osteoporos Int 2:285289.
  • 8
    Diamond T, Smerdely P, Kormas N, Sekel R, Vu T, Day P 1998 Hip fracture in elderly men: The importance of subclinical vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism. Med J Aust 169:138141.
  • 9
    Forsen L, Sogaard AJ, Meyer HE, Edna T, Kopjar B 1999 Survival after hip fracture: Short- and long-term excess mortality according to age and gender. Osteoporos Int 10:7378.
  • 10
    Myers AH, Robinson EG, Van Natta ML, Michelson JD, Collins K, Baker SP 1991 Hip fractures among the elderly: Factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Am J Epidemiol 134:11281137.
  • 11
    O'Neill TW, Felsenberg D, Varlow J, Cooper C, Kanis JA, Silman AJ 1996 The prevalence of vertebral deformity in European men and women: The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 11:10101018.
  • 12
    Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP 1997 Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 12:17611768.
  • 13
    Kanis JA, Melton LJ III, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N 1994 The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9:11371141.
  • 14
    Orwoll E 2000 Assessing bone mineral density in men. J Bone Miner Res 15:18671870.
  • 15
    Melton LJ III 1997 The prevalence of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 12:17691771.
  • 16
    Farmer ME, White LR, Brody JA, Bailey KR 1984 Race and sex differences in hip fracture incidence. Am J Public Health 74:13741380.
  • 17
    Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox KM, Ensrud KE, Cauley J, Black D, Vogt TM 1995 Risk factors for hip fracture in older white women: Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 332:767773.
  • 18
    Seale RU 1959 The weight of dry fat-free skeleton of American Whites and Negroes. Am J Phys Anthropol 17:3748.
  • 19
    Bell NH, Gordon L, Stevens J, Shary JR 1995 Demonstration that bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, trochanter, and femoral neck is higher in Black than in White young men. Calcif Tissue Int 56:1113.
  • 20
    Nelson DA, Jacobsen G, Barondess DA, Parfitt AM 1995 Ethnic differences in regional bone density, hip axis length, and lifestyle variables among healthy Black and White men. J Bone Miner Res 10:782787.
  • 21
    Dibba B, Prentice A, Laskey MA, Stirling DM, Cole TJ 1999 An investigation of ethnic differences in bone mineral, hip axis length, calcium metabolism and bone turnover between West African and White adults living in the United Kingdom. Ann Hum Biol 26:229242.
  • 22
    Bell NH, Shary J, Stevens J, Garza M, Gordon L, Edwards J 1991 Demonstration that bone mass is greater in Black than in White children. J Bone Miner Res 6:719723.
  • 23
    Bell NH, Yergey AL, Vieira NE, Oexmann MJ, Shary JR 1993 Demonstration of a difference in urinary calcium, not calcium absorption, in Black and White adolescents. J Bone Miner Res 8:11111115.
  • 24
    Bell NH, Greene A, Epstein S, Oexmann MJ, Shaw S, Shary J 1985 Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in Blacks. J Clin Invest 76:470473.
  • 25
    Harris SS, Soteriades E, Coolidge JA, Mudgal S, Dawson-Hughes B 2000 Vitamin D insufficiency and hyperparathyroidism in a low income, multiracial, elderly population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:41254130.
  • 26
    Harris SS, Soteriades E, Dawson-Hughes B 2001 Secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone turnover in elderly Blacks and Whites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:38013804.
  • 27
    Wright NM, Renault J, Willi S, Veldhuis JD, Pandey JP, Gordon L, Key LL, Bell NH 1995 Greater secretion of growth hormone in Black than in White men: Possible factor in greater bone mineral density—a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:22912297.
  • 28
    Weinstein RS, Bell NH 1988 Diminished rates of bone formation in normal Black adults. N Engl J Med 319:16981701.
  • 29
    Perry HM III, Miller DK, Morley JE, Horowitz M, Kaiser FE, Perry HM Jr, Jensen J, Bentley J, Boyd S, Kraenzle D 1993 A preliminary report of vitamin D and calcium metabolism in older African Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc 41:612616.
  • 30
    Kleerekoper M, Nelson D, Peterson E, Flynn MJ, Pawluszka AS, Jacobsen G, Wilson P 1994 Reference data for bone mass, calciotropic hormones, and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in older (55–75) postmenopausal white and black women. J Bone Miner Res 9:12671276.
  • 31
    Bell NH, Morrison NA, Nguyen TV, Eisman J, Hollis BW 2001 ApaI polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor predict bone density of the lumbar spine and not racial difference in bone density in young men. J Lab Clin Med 137:133140.
  • 32
    Looker AC, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay R 1998 Updated data on proximal femur bone mineral levels of US adults. Osteoporos Int 8:468489.
  • 33
    Beck TJ, Ruff CB, Warden KE, Scott WW, Rao GU 1990 Predicting femoral neck strength from bone mineral data: A structural approach. Invest Radiol 25:618.
  • 34
    Marottoli RA, Ostfeld AM, Merrill SS, Perlman GD, Foley DJ, Cooney LM Jr 1993 Driving cessation and changes in mileage driven among elderly individuals. J Gerontol B 48:S255S260.
  • 35
    Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Nevitt MC, Bauer DC, Genant HK, Haskell WL, Marcus R, Ott SM, Torner JC, Quandt SA, Reiss TF, Ensrud KE 1996 Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures: Results from the Fracture Intervention Trial. Lancet 348:15351541.