• 1
    Johnell O, Gullberg B, Kanis JA, Allander E, Elffors L, Dequeker J, Dilsen G, Gennari C, Lopes Vaz A, Lyritis G 1995 Risk factors for hip fracture in European women: The MEDOS Study. J Bone Miner Res 10:18021815.
  • 2
    Turner RT, Riggs BL, Spelsberg TC 1994 Skeletal effects of estrogen. Endocr Rev 15:275300.
  • 3
    Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Wilhelmsen L, Bengtsson B-Å 1999 Postmenopausal osteoporosis is more related to hormonal aberrations than to lifestyle factors. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 51:387394.
  • 4
    Lindsay R 1993 Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Lancet 341:801805.
  • 5
    Harris WH, Heaney RP, Jowsey J, Cockin J, Akins C, Graham J, Weinberg EH 1972 Growth hormone: The effect on skeletal renewal in the adult dog. I. Morphometric studies. Calcif Tissue Res 10:113.
  • 6
    Isaksson OG, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Isgaard J 1987 Mechanism of the stimulatory effect of growth hormone on longitudinal bone growth. Endocr Rev 8:426438.
  • 7
    Vandeweghe M, Taelman P, Kaufman JM 1993 Short and long-term effects of growth hormone treatment on bone turnover and bone mineral content in adult growth hormone-deficient males. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 39:409415.
  • 8
    O′Halloran DJ, Tsatsoulis A, Whitehouse RW, Holmes SJ, Adams JE, Shalet SM 1993 Increased bone density after recombinant human growth hormone (GH) therapy in adults with isolated GH deficiency J Clin Endocrinol Metab 76:13441348.
  • 9
    Johannsson G, Rosén T, Bosaeus I, Sjöström L, Bengtsson B-Å 1996 Two years of growth hormone (GH) treatment increases bone mineral content and density in hypopituitary patients with adult-onset GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:28652873.
  • 10
    Clanget C, Seck T, Hinke V, Wüster C, Ziegler R, Pfeilschifter J 2001 Effects of 6 years of growth hormone (GH) treatment on bone mineral density in GH-deficient adults. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 55:9399.
  • 11
    Rosén T, Wilhelmsen L, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Lappas G, Bengtsson B-Å 1997 Increased fracture frequency in adult patients with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol 137:240245.
  • 12
    Wüster C, Abs R, Bengtsson B-Å, Bennmarker H, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Hernberg-Ståhl E, Monsom JP, Westberg B, Wilton P 2001 The influence of growth hormone deficiency, growth hormone replacement therapy, and other aspects of hypopituitarism on fracture rate and bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 16:398405.
  • 13
    World Health Organization 1994 Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Report from a Study Group. WHO Technical Report Series 843, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 56.
  • 14
    Kalender WA, Felsenberg D, Genant HK, Fischer M, Dequeker J, Reeve J 1995 The European spine phantom—a tool for standardization and quality control in spinal bone measurements by DXA and QCT. Eur J Radiol 20:8392.
  • 15
    Smith-Bindman R, Cummings SR, Steiger P, Genant HK 1991 A comparison of morphometric definitions of vertebral fracture. J Bone Miner Res 6:2534.
  • 16
    Saltin B, Grimby G 1968 Physiological analysis of middle-aged and old former athletes. Comparison with still active athletes of the same ages. Circulation 38:11041115.
  • 17
    Sullivan M, Karlsson J, Ware JE Jr 1995 The Swedish SF-36 Health Survey-I. Evaluation of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and construct validity across general populations in Sweden. Soc Sci Med 41:13491358.
  • 18
    Johnell O, Wiklund PE, Hulth A 1977 Osteoclast counting in crista biopsies. Acta Orthop Scand 48:566571.
  • 19
    Goldner J 1938 A modification of the Masson trichrome technique for routine laboratory purpose. Am J Pathol 14:237243.
  • 20
    Obrant KJ 1984 Trabecular bone changes in the greater trochanter after fracture of the femoral neck. Acta Orthop Scand 55:7882.
  • 21
    Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Wilhelmsen L, Lappas G, Rosén T, Lindstedt G, Lundberg P-A, Bengtsson B-Å 1994 Serum insulin-like growth factor I in a random population sample of men and women: Relation to age, sex, smoking habits, coffee consumption and physical activity, blood pressure and concentrations of plasma lipids, fibrinogen, parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 41:351357.
  • 22
    Sugimoto T, Nakaoka D, Nasu M, Kanzawa M, Sugishita T, Chihara K 1999 Effect of recombinant human growth hormone in elderly osteoporotic women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 51:715724.
  • 23
    Holmes SJ, Whitehouse RW, Economou G, O′Halloran DJ, Adams JE, Shalet SM 1995 Further increase in forearm cortical bone mineral content after discontinuation of growth hormone replacement. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 42:37.
  • 24
    Sääf M, Hilding A, Thorén M, Troell S, Hall K 1999 Growth hormone treatment of osteoporotic postmenopausal women-a one-year placebo-controlled study. Eur J Endocrinol 140:390399.
  • 25
    Clemmesen B, Overgaard K, Riis B, Christiansen C 1993 Human growth hormone and growth hormone releasing hormone: A double-masked, placebo-controlled study of their effects on bone metabolism in elderly women. Osteoporos Int 3:330336.
  • 26
    Kassem M, Brixen K, Blum WF, Mosekilde L, Eriksen EF 1994 Normal osteoclastic and osteoblastic responses to exogenous growth hormone in patients with postmenopausal spinal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 9:13651370.
  • 27
    Kassem M, Brixen K, Mosekilde L, Blum WF, Flyvbjerg A 1998 Effects of growth hormone treatment on serum levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins 1–4 in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 49:747756.
  • 28
    Holloway L, Butterfield G, Hintz RL, Gesundheit N, Marcus R 1994 Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on metabolic indices, body composition, and bone turnover in healthy elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:470479.
  • 29
    Rudman D, Feller AG, Nagraj HS, Gergans GA, Lalitha PY, Goldberg AF, Schlenker RA, Cohn L, Rudman IW, Mattson DE 1990 Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N Engl J Med 323:16.
  • 30
    Holloway L, Kohlmeier L, Kent K, Marcus R 1997 Skeletal effects of cyclic recombinant human growth hormone and salmon calcitonin in osteopenic postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:11111117.
  • 31
    Ellegård L, Bosaeus I, Nordgren S, Bengtsson B-Å 1997 Low-dose recombinant human growth hormone increases body weight and lean body mass in patients with short bowel syndrome. Ann Surg 225:8896.
  • 32
    Bex M, Abs R, Maiter D, Beckers A, Lamberigts G, Bouillon R 2002 The effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone metabolism in adult-onset growth hormone deficiency: A 2-year open randomized controlled multicenter trial. J Bone Miner Res 17:10811094.
  • 33
    Ohlsson C, Bengtsson B-Å, Isaksson OG, Andreassen TT, Slootweg MC 1998 Growth hormone and bone. Endocrine Rev 19:5579.
  • 34
    Isaksson OGP, Ohlsson C, Bengtsson B-Å, Johannsson G 2000 GH and bone—Experimental and clinical studies. Endocr J 47(Suppl):S9S16.
  • 35
    Eriksen EF, Steiniche T, Mosekilde L, Melsen F 1989 Histomorphometric analysis of bone in metabolic bone disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 18:919954.
  • 36
    Parfitt AM, Drezner MK, Glorieux FH, Kanis JA, Malluche H, Meunier PJ, Ott SM, Recker RR 1987 Bone histomorphometry: Standardization of nomenclature, symbols, and units. Report of the ASBMR Histomorphometry Nomenclature Committee. J Bone Miner Res 2:595610.
  • 37
    Scharla SH, Scheidt-Nave C, Leidig G, Woitge H, Wüster C, Seibel MJ, Ziegler R 1996 Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased bone resorption markers and lower bone density at the proximal femur in normal females: A population-based study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 106:289292.
  • 38
    Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Johansson S, Rosengren A, Dotevall A, Lappas G, Bengtsson B-Å, Wilhelmsen L 2000 Calcaneal ultrasound measurements are determined by age and physical activity. Studies in two Swedish random population samples. J Intern Med 247:269278.
  • 39
    Omland LM, Tell GS, Ofjord S, Skag A 2000 Risk factors for low bone mineral density among a large group of Norwegian women with fractures. Eur J Epidemiol 16:223229.
  • 40
    Wilhelmsen L, Svärdsudd K, Korsan-Bengtsen K, Larsson B, Welin L, Tibblin G 1984 Fibrinogen as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 311:501505.
  • 41
    Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Tengborn L, Wilhelmsen L, Bengtsson B-Å 1997 Elevated fibrinogen levels decrease following treatment of acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 46:6974.
  • 42
    Tuchweber B, Salas M 1975 Experimental pathology of aging. Methods Achiev Exp Pathol 7:167226.
  • 43
    Wüster C, Härle U, Rehn U, Müller C, Knauf K, Köppler D, Schwabe C, Ziegler R 1998 Benefits of growth hormone treatment on bone metabolism, bone density and bone strength in growth hormone deficiency and osteoporosis. Growth Horm IGF Res 8(Suppl A):8794.
  • 44
    Rosen CJ, Glowacki J, Craig W 1998 Sex steroids, the insulin-like growth factor regulatory system, and aging: Implications for the management of older postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging 2:3944.
  • 45
    Recker RR, Heaney RP 2001 The role of combination treatment for osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:18881889.
  • 46
    Cosman F, Nieves J, Woelfert L, Formica C, Gordon S, Shen V, Lindsay R 2001 Parathyroid hormone added to established hormone therapy: Effects on vertebral fracture and maintenance of bone mass after parathyroid hormone withdrawal. J Bone Miner Res 16:925931.
  • 47
    Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, Prince R, Gaich GA, Reginster JY, Hodsman AB, Eriksen EF, Ish-Shalom S, Genant HK, Wang O, Mitlak BH 2001 Effect of parathyroid hormone (1–34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 344:14341441.